1887
Volume 2021, Issue 1
  • EISSN: 2708-0463

Abstract

يُشكّل التلوّث البيئي الناتج من الأنشطة الصناعية والمنزلية والزراعية ضغطًا كبيرًا على الموارد المائية على مستوى العالم؛ ذلك أنّ للمياه المستعملة تأثيرًا مباشرًا في البيئة، إذ يتم تصريفها مباشرة في الطبيعة بعد إخضاعها للمعالجة وفق معايير محدّدة، فتحتوي بذلك على مجموعة كبيرة ومتنوعة من الكائنات الحية الدقيقة والمركبات العضوية وغير العضوية التي تسبب العديد من الأمراض والمخاطر. وفي هذا الإطار، جمع الباحثون عينات من مياه البحر ومن مياه الصرف الصحي المعالجة وغير المعالجة من أربعة بلدان في جنوب البحر الأبيض المتوسط، هي: مصر والمغرب والجزائر وتونس. خضعت هذه العيّنات لمجموعة من التحاليل الفيزيائية-الكيميائية والميكروبية، ثمّ تمّت مقارنة النتائج المتحصّل عليها بدراسة أُجريت في الفترة نفسها بدولة في شمال البحر الأبيض المتوسط، وهي إيطاليا. أظهرت الدراسات الفيزيائية-الكيميائية تلوثًا بارزًا لمياه الصرف ومياه البحر التي تم جمعها وتحليلها من البلدان العربية الأربعة وإيطاليا، حيث أثبتت وجود الملوثات: الأكسجين الكيميائي (COD) والطلب على الأكسجين البيولوجي (BOD) و(TOC)، والنترات (NO) وغيرها، وأيضًا بعض المعادن الثقيلة. من ناحية أخرى، سمحت تقنية (DGGE) بتقييم مباشر للتنوع البكتيري الموجود بهذه المياه المستعملة وكذلك مياه البحر، وقد أثبتت هذه التحاليل شدة التنوع البكتيري في هذه المياه.

The availability of water resources worldwide suffers from pollution pressures caused by many assets, such as industrial, domestic, and agricultural activities. Wastewater has a direct impact on the natural environment, as it is drained after some specific treatments, so it contains a large variety of microorganisms, organic, and inorganic compounds that cause many diseases and harms. In this context, the authors collected samples of seawater as well as treated and untreated wastewater from southern Mediterranean countries (Egypt, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia), then carried out some physico-chemical and microbiological analysis. After that, the obtained results were compared with some of the results found in the same period in a northern Mediterranean country (Italy). Physico-chemical studies showed significant pollution of wastewater and seawater collected and analyzed from the Arab countries and Italy in terms of the presence of pollutants (COD, BOD, TOC, NO ... etc.), and some heavy metals. On the other hand, DGGE technology allowed a direct evaluation of bacterial diversity in this wastewater as well as seawater. These tests have demonstrated the intensity of bacterial diversity in these water types.

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2021-06-10
2021-06-15
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