Retrofitting occupied villas with PV systems is only possible with the acceptance of the inhabitants. The challenge is to make Building Integrated Photovoltaics BIPV and own-consumption of PV energy attractive and comfortable to the people. Providing Smart BIPV systems that consist of the PV system, an energy manager and a house management system adaptable to the individual lifestyle of the people could be a helpful motivation to support the PV micro grid generation. In the Smart BIPV system the energy manager is monitoring all energy flows within the building, the consumed energy and the PV production. This detailed visualization makes the people sensible to their energy demands and gives them a real chance to improve their consumption habits. To achieve high own-consumption automatically switching of different appliances is necessary. The PV manager is able to switch appliances on and off according to the individual settings. Flexible appliances with high energy demand (washing machine, dishwasher, and dryer) can be adapted to the own-produced energy. They are connected to different defined power sockets and the central unit will start them when enough PV energy is available. The inhabitants can change the settings individually to their needs, thus they can train their skills and gain experiences in coordinating different machines. Other appliances must work independently from the PV energy (air conditioner, fan, blinds) and should be switched according to the inhabitant’s schedule. For example the air-conditioner should not run the whole day but before the inhabitants’ return, the central-unit can switch it on by settings or remotely to make a comfortable climate. This will not increase the own-consumption but reduces the demand of conventionally produced energy extensively and makes a good conscience. The third group of appliances are all electrical devices with constant energy demand (refrigerator, freezer). These appliances are supplied by PV energy at first and during night by the public grid. That means a visible usage of renewable energy day by day. The Smart BIPV systems can be introduced in new buildings and also in occupied villas. The PV manager is part of this system and the central unit is also connected to the electric meters, power sockets, switch sockets and several components like sensors for measuring temperature, humidity and motion in-house and outside. It must be built in by an electrician but the different applications can be installed successively and adjusted by the inhabitants.


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  • Received: 22 April 2015
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