1887
Volume 2016, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 2223-0440
  • EISSN:

Abstract

Over 200 million people suffer from osteoporosis worldwide, which occurs when bone tissues become structurally deteriorated and bone mass becomes fragile, resulting in an increased risk of fracture. This review aims to describe the underlying risk factors and provide guidance on changes in lifestyle for those at risk of developing osteoporosis. It highlights risk factors such as age, sex, genetic background, and other under lying illnesses (factors that are generally “non-modifiable”). Furthermore, it focuses on factors that are dependent on lifestyle and (local) habits (factors that are “modifiable”), such as diet, sunlight exposure, exercise, and medication. Clearly, osteoporosis is a multifactorial disease and multiple of these risk factors can occur simultaneously. Currently, the data available differ greatly between regions and some areas might be affected more seriously than others. This review suggests that this might be due to differing healthcare training systems and suboptimal awareness of osteoporosis. Importantly, osteoporosis and resulting bone fractures represent a significant economic burden for both individuals and the wider society. Therefore, improved awareness of the disease may influence personal habits, reduce suffering, and alleviate the burden on healthcare expenditure.

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2016-04-14
2020-09-23
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  • Article Type: Review Article
Keyword(s): genetic background , geographic variations , osteoporosis , risk factors , sun exposure and vitamin D
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