Volume 2013, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 2223-0440
  • EISSN:



Lead (Pb2+) is ubiquitously distributed in the environment and shows significant health effects in humans, especially in the nervous system. In this review we illustrate how (Pb2+) neurotoxicity is associated with its ability to partially mimic the function of Ca2+ and modifies synaptic transmission pre- and post-synaptically. As Pb2+ binds to calcium-binding sites it alters their functionality, ranging from reduced currents through voltage and receptor gated channels, to modulation of ion-transporters and alterations of calcium-dependent signaling pathways. Overall Pb2+ exposure not only reduces pre-synaptically the transmitter release, but also post-synaptically the likelihood to generate a new action potential. This review will highlight the major-interactions with the different targets in schemes and short animated sequences to allow a general understanding of lead neurotoxicity to a wider audience; therefore, not all possible mechanisms will be mentioned or discussed.


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  • Article Type: Research Article
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