Background: Developing effective public health policies and strategies for interventions necessitate an assessment of the structure, dynamics, disease rates and causes of death in a population. Lately, Qatar has undertaken development resurgence in health and economy that resulted in improving the standard of health services leading to enhanced life expectancy as was evident in the entire Qatari population (i.e., Qatari nationals and non-Qatari residents). No study has attempted to examine the influence of improving the health services on the homogenous, stable population of Qatari nationals. Objective: The present study examines the population structure and dynamics and the related changes in the cause-specific mortality rates and disease prevalence in the Qatari nationals. Methods: This is a retrospective, analytic descriptive analysis covering a period of 5 years (2007-2011) and utilizes a range of data sources from the State of Qatar including the population structure, disease-related mortality rates, and the prevalence of a range of chronic and infectious diseases. Factors reflecting population dynamics such as crude death (CDR), crude birth (CBR), total fertility (TFR) and infant mortality (IMR) rates were also calculated. Results: The Qatari nationals is an expansive population with an annual growth rate of ~4% and a stable M:F ratio. The CDR declined by 15% within the study period whereas the CBR was almost stable. The total disease-specific death rate, however, was decreased in the Qatari nationals by 23% due to the decline in mortality rates attributed to diseases of the blood and immune system (43%), nervous system (44%) and cardiovascular system (41%). There was a high prevalence of a range of chronic diseases whereas very low frequencies of the infectious diseases within the study population. Conclusion: Public health strategies, approaches and programs, developed to reduce diseases burden and the related death, should be tailored to target the population of Qatari nationals since this population exhibits characteristics that vary from the entire Qatari population.


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