1887
Volume 4(2023) Number 2
  • EISSN: 2708-0463

Abstract

حشرة نحل العسل من الحشرات الهامة اقتصاديّاً، سواء في تلقيح المحاصيل الزراعية أو إنتاج العسل والشمع والغذاء الملكي وحبوب اللقاح والبروبوليس وسم النحل. تتعرض هذه الحشرة للعديد من الأمراض والآفات الطفيلية، ويعتبر طفيل الفاروا من أخطر الآفات ضرراً على نحل العسل في العالم أجمع، ولأن طفيل الفاروا أصبح لديه مقاومة للعلاجات الكيماوية هدفت هذه الدراسة إلى اختبار كفاءة أربعة نباتات هي نبات الحَـدَق ، وإكليل الجبل ، والبردقوش ، والعُشار كمدخنات طبيعية لمكافحة الفاروا. تم إجراء الدراسة في محافظة إب بالجمهورية اليمنية، خلال الفترة من 15 مارس إلى 25 ابريل 2022، على خلايا نحل قياسية نوع (لانجستروث) بها طوائف من النحل اليمني ، تحتوي كل خلية من 6-7 إطارات (براويز) مغطاة بالنحل، وتم أخذ قراءة التساقط الطبيعي للفاروا لكل المعاملات بما فيها الشاهد قبل التطبيق بعد 3 أيام من وضع قواعد عد الفاروا، ثم بعد 6 و9 أيام على التوالي دون استخدام أي نوع من التدخين؛ وذلك من أجل حساب متوسط التساقط الطبيعي للفاروا.عوملت كل معاملة حسب المادة النباتية المستخدمة تدخيناً من خلال أبواب الخلايا، وأُخذت القراءات بعد 3 و6 و9 أيام على التوالي، وأظهرت النتائج أن استخدام النباتات السابقة تدخيناً لمكافحة حلم الفاروا أعطت جميعها نتائج جيدة في تساقط حلم الفاروا؛ حيث بلغ أعلى معدل للتساقط بعد المعالجة بنبات الحدق (T1) بمتوسط 144 حلماً/خلية، بينما كانت أقل نسبة تساقط في معاملة نبات (T3) بمتوسط 122.33 حلم/ خلية، وأظهرت النتائج أن معدل تساقط حلم الفاروا الميت بعد المعالجة كان كبيراً خلال الـ 3 أيام الأولى للمعاملات باستثناء الشاهد بمتوسط عام بلغ 83.57% حلم/ معاملة، بينما كانت أقل أعداد الحلم المتساقط عند القراءة بعد 6أيام من المعالجة بمتوسط عام 66.57% حلم/معاملة، وأظهرت النتائج انخفاض معدل تساقط حلم الفاروا الميت بعد 9 أيام إلى أقل من النصف تقريباً مقارنة بالثلاثة أيام الأولى بمتوسط عام بلغ 36.50% حلم/ معاملة. وبالنسبة لمتوسط عدد حلم الفاروا داخل أعين الحضنة المغلقة للشغالات قبل وبعد المعالجة أظهرت النتائج أن نسبة إصابة حضنة الشغالات المغلقة بحلم الفاروا كانت مرتفعة قبل المعالجة لكل المعاملات بما فيها الشاهد بلغ 60%، وبعد المعالجة انخفضت بدرجة كبيرة في جميع المعاملات باستثناء (الشاهد)، وكانت أقل نسبة إصابة تم تسجيلها في معاملة نبات الحدق(T1) بنسبة 8.33%.

The honeybee is an economically important insect, whether for pollinating agricultural crops, or for producing honey, wax, royal jelly, pollen, propolis, and bee venom. However, this insect is exposed to various diseases and parasitic pests, whereas the parasite is considered as one of the most dangerous pests harmful to honeybees in the whole world. As the parasite has become resistant to chemical treatments, this study aimed to test the efficiency of four plants: , , , and as natural fumigants for control. The study was conducted in Ibb Governorate in Yemen (during the period March 15th to April 25th, 2022) on standard beehives (Langstroth) with colonies of Yemeni bees . Each cell contained 6-7 frames covered with bees. Readings of the natural precipitation of were taken for all treatments, including the control, before application, after 3 days of installing the count rules, then after 6 and 9 days respectively, without using any kind of smoking in order to calculate the average natural precipitation of . Each treatment was made according to the plant material used for smoking through the doors of the hives and readings were taken after 3, 6 and 9 days, respectively. The results showed that the use of the previous plants by smoking to combat gave good results in the shedding of mites, as it reached the highest rate of mites after treatment with (T1) with an average of 144 mites. While the lowest precipitation rate was in treatment (T3), with an average of 122.33 mites/cell. The results also showed that the rate of shedding of dead mites after treatment was significant during the first 3 days of the treatments, with the exception of the control, with an overall average of 83.57% mites/treatment. While the lowest numbers of fallen mites were when the reading was taken after 6 days of treatment, with an overall average of 66.57% mites/treatment. In addition, it was noticed a decrease in the rate of shedding of dead mites after 9 days to approximately less than half compared to the first three days, with an overall average of 36.50% mites/treatment. As for the average number of mites inside the eyes of the closed brood of the workers before and after treatment, the results showed that the rate of infection of the closed brood of the workers with mites was high before treatment for all treatments, including the control, reaching 60%. After treatment, it decreased significantly in all treatments except (the control), and the lowest infection rate was recorded in the (T1) treatment, at 8.33%.

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