Since the first report on the generation of pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) from preimplantation embryos, there has been tremendous interest in developing culture systems to produce ESCs from human and other species efficiently to use them in biomedical applications. These cells have provided fascinating possibilities and tools to study human development, genetic diseases, and development of toxicological and pharmaceutical applications as well as in therapeutic transplantation. Developing an efficient method to derive ESCs from various genetic backgrounds should be valuable for establishment of ESCs in various mammalian species, including human. However, it is still encumbered by various technical and ethical objections. This challenge is circumvented by using small molecules that suppress differentiation pathways. Here, we will present our recent studies on efficient and reproducible establishment of ESCs from blastocysts and single blastomere to avoid destruction of the embryo. Additionally, we present our recent researches on testis-derived pluripotent stem cells that share characteristics of ESCs. The application of these small molecules will not only solve the problems of derivation and expansion of pluripotent stem cell in defined conditions, but also clarify new signaling pathways in them.


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  • Received: 05 March 2012
  • Accepted: 28 March 2012
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