The compounds of nickel, arsenic, cobalt, beryllium, thallium, aluminum, lead, mercury, zirconium and cadmium exert pronounced comutagenic effects, by disturbing DNA repair and interfering with base and nucleotide excision repair. These elements can be widely dispersed throughout the environment as a result of fossil fuel combustion, industrial and agricultural processes and natural processes. The potential mobilization of these toxic trace metals and metalloids in our environment, pose health hazards, in particular, children exposed to metals are more susceptible to DNA damage. A number of human samples: hair, nails, blood, urine, teeth, saliva, perspiration, milk and semen were analyzed for levels of trace elements to compare with the presence or absence of micronuclei in peripheral blood leucocytes and disturbances of DNA repair systems. The ranges of lead, nickel and cadmium are found in urine, blood, teeth, hair and nails of general subjects from Mysore, India, and the absence of micronuclei levels in their peripheral blood samples, indicated that the elemental levels were below the threshold limit and that there is a need for reference values of these elements measured in the biosamples with the micronuclei assessment for confirmation and assurance. The literature was reviewed, and the reference values of mutagenic elements for biosamples was presented and discussed. .


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  • Received: 16 May 2012
  • Accepted: 16 May 2012
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