Qatar experienced very rapid economic growth with the discovery and production of fuel oil and natural gas (NG); and their price increases. The consumption of fresh, desalted seawater (DW) and electric power (EP) are increasing due to population increase and the rising standard of living. The main EP generating power plants (PP) are using either simple gas turbines (GT) cycle, or GT combined with steam turbines (ST) to form a gas turbine combined cycle (GTCC).

The main source of potable water is secured by DW. The DW represents 99% of the municipal water supply. DW is generated by thermally operated desalting systems, usually multi stage flash (MSF) and recently multi effect (MED) desalting units; usually in combination with PP. These desalting units are supplied with steam as thermal energy input coming from either heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) coupled with gas turbines (GT), or steam extracted (or discharged) from steam turbines of the GTCC. These necessitate the consumption of huge amounts fossil fuel (FF) energy to produce the DW. Burning FF to generate EP and DW pollutes the environment by emitting carbon dioxide CO, nitrogen oxides NO, and sulfuric oxides SO, with quantities directly related with the consumed FF. Raising the efficiencies of producing EP and DW are essential to decrease their impact on the environment. One of Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute (QEERI) aims is to find the energy footprints in Qatar. This is to map the energy supply, demands, and losses in certain sectors of the country, mainly in the EP and DW generating PP; and in buildings. Monitoring the consumed energy and conducting research to lower the consumption is always needed.

This paper concerns with the energy resources in Qatar, and their footprints in the main sectors, of EP and DW production, industry and buildings. It presents analysis of the energy flows, demands, and conservation in these sectors. The inefficiencies in generating EP and DW, and their consumptions by buildings, and their impact on the environment are discussed. Looking for very energy efficient ways to save the nation’s main income (NG and fuel oil production) is the aim of this study. It is also essential to promote conservation measures for both water and power.


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  • Received: 05 February 2012
  • Accepted: 13 March 2012
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