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Abstract

Background: Titanium dioxide (TiO2) films have been extensively studied due to their interesting electrical and optical properties. They have the potential to be used for a number of electronic device applications such as dye sensitized photovoltaic cells and also anti-reflective coatings, gas sensors, electrochromic displays and planer wave guides. Objective: Measurement of the electric properties and surface structure analysis of TiO2 thin films was investigated for the purpose of solar cell applications. Methods: Different characterization methods were used to determine the quality of the film. The surface morphology was characterized by a Philips XL40 scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) data was collected on a diffractometer using CuKa radiation at a wavelength of 1.5406 Å at 40 kV and 30 mA to assess the structure of the deposited films. The homogeneity and contaminants of the TiO2 composition were analyzed by energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Results: Titanium oxide thin films deposited on substrates by the sol-gel dip-coating technique were produced under different conditions. The current voltage (I-V) properties of TiO2 were measured in different temperatures ranging from 80 to 400 K, using a digital Keithley 6571A electrometer. The I-V characteristics appeared to be ohmic at a low voltage and space charge limited (SCL) at a higher voltage. The activation energy of TiO2 was also calculated, yielding one of two values, depending on the temperature regime. The conductivity increased when the grain boundary effect was reduced as the particle increased in size. The morphology of the films were analyzed by AFM, which revealed that the films were uniform, homogeneous and smooth and also that nanoparticles were present. The structure and the phase of TiO2, analyzed by XRD, showed that the films were anatase. In addition, the composition of the TiO2 thin films studied via EDS showed they were rich in Ti. The thickness of the films were obtained from ellipsometry based on the Cauchy function, which gave a figure of 58 nm per dip. Conclusion: This analysis showed that anatase titania nanofilms (TiO2) have a great potential for application in photovoltaic devices.

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/content/papers/10.5339/qfarf.2012.EEP31
2012-10-01
2020-12-06
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http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/papers/10.5339/qfarf.2012.EEP31
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