Background and Objectives: The State of Qatar has achieved maternal, neonatal and perinatal survival rates which are comparable to many high income countries, both from the West and East. Our study aims to analyze obstetric determinants of Qatar's neonatal mortality rate (NMR) during 2011. Methodology: A PEARL study (Perinatal Neonatal Outcomes Research Study in the Arabian Gulf), a joint collaborative research project between Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC), Qatar, and University of Gloucestershire, United Kingdom, is Qatar's prospective national perinatal epidemiological study funded by Qatar National Research Fund. The study is quantifying maternal, neonatal and perinatal mortality, morbidities and their correlates by establishing a national neonatal perinatal registry for Qatar called Q-Peri-Reg. Data on live births and neonatal mortality was collected from all public and private maternity facilities in Qatar during 2011. Data on obstetric determinants was ascertained from maternal obstetric record on predesigned performas. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis was done using Epi Info and SPSS-20. Results: Qatar's NMR during 2011 was 4.9. The relative risk of neonatal mortality was higher and statistically significant with caesarean section delivery (p= 0.003), emergency caesarean section (p <0.001), breech delivery (p <0.001), previous abortion (p= 0.009), previous preterm birth (p= 0.002), and lack of antenatal care (p <0.001). 94% of mothers had antenatal care and 25% of deliveries were by caesarean section. Maternal and paternal age, gravidity, parity, previous stillbirths, maternal BMI at delivery and duration of rupture of membranes did not have any statistically significant correlation with neonatal mortality (Table 1). Conclusion: High level of antenatal care in Qatar appears to have contributed significantly to its improved neonatal survival rates. The high levels of emergency caesarean sections and their association with increased neonatal mortality needs further research.


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