Gymnema sylvestre is a medicinal plant that is used in the folkloric treatment of diabetes mellitus and the management of its complications. This study was aimed at evaluation of antidiabetic and toxicological effects of ethylacetate and n-hexane fractions of Gymnema sylvestre whole plant. Diabetes was induced in Swiss albino rats by single intraperitoneal administration of 110 mg/kg bodyweight of alloxan monohydrate. Rats in their respective groups were orally administered 100, 300 and 600 mg/ kg bodyweight of ethylacetate and n-hexane fractions of the plant daily while the standard drug group received 100 mg/kg bodyweight of metformin. The treatment lasted for fourteen days and on the fifteenth day, animals were anaesthetized and euthanized. Blood samples were collected by carotid puncture for biochemical analysis. In the subchronic toxicological aspect of the study, rats in their respective groups were administered 100, 300, 600 mg/kg bodyweight of the extracts daily for twenty one days and the experiment was terminated on the twenty second day. All the extracts were able to reduce the blood glucose of diabetic rats with 300 mg/kg bodyweight of ethylacetate fraction having higher reduction at 82%. All diabetic rats showed decrease in bodyweight when compared with normoglycemic group. There was significant (p<0.05) reduction in the total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, low density lipoprotein and a concomitant increase in the values of high density lipoprotein in all treated groups when compared with diabetic untreated (negative control).The activity of serum liver enzymes (Ɣ- glutamine transpeptidase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase) and bilirubin significantly decreased (p<0.05) compared with the diabetic untreated group. Levels of total protein in the treated groups did not differ from the normoglycemic group, while there was a reduction in the concentration of albumin of ethylacetate fraction in a dose dependent manner. All treated groups gave urea and creatinine values that showed no significance differences (p>0.05) with the normoglycemic group. The electrolytes showed significant differences (p<0.05) in all treated groups when compared with the normoglycemic group. There was significant difference (p<0.05) in all the biochemical parameters carried out on the subchronic toxicity test with rats administered ethylacetate and n-hexane fractions of G.sylvestre. The hematological parameters (red blood cell, mean cell volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, hemoglobin) showed no significant difference but a non significant difference in the white blood cell of rats administered with the extract. Therefore, extracts of G. sylvestre might be useful for management of diabetes mellitus and other abnormalities associated with this metabolic disorder


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