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Abstract

Abstract

Superficial characteristics like physical features, race, origin and nationality have proven in the past to escalate to violent conflicts, reasons very from relativeness to belonging. Although the issue of those born to Qatari mothers is unlikely to escalate to a conflict anytime soon, it is still a rising heath concern, especially in terms of the conflicting social identity, which have proven to cause anxiety to many individuals. Unifying the state of Qatar, and identifying what makes a Qatari is vital to achieve the states visions.

Objectives

Identify the source of the identity crisis, define and understand children born to Qatari mothers to properly integrate them in society in order resolve the identity issue, and unify Qatar as a whole by universally defining what makes a Qatari? is it merely biased on nationality?

Literature Review

It its important to not that not a lot of literature directly discusses the research topic, and it was not the researches intent to attack the law system in the state of Qatar, yet, understand and carefully study the causes and effects surrounding the identity of children born to Qatari mothers.

Qatar State law decree no. (21) of 1989 Regarding the Regulation of Marriage to foreigners. This law regulates rights to be exercised by those born to Qatari mothers without exceptions. This was used to examine the actual law, and what is exercised in reality.

Anderson, B. defines and identifies the origin and formation of nationality. Explaining that humans set boundaries for themselves that are merle imagined to satisfy a belonging deficiency found within ones self. Although Mr. Anderson simplifies the problem, the question asked for the sake of this research is: can the issue be easily removed? Can society simply eliminate the self-proclaimed boundaries the same way they created them?

All three Halisi, Kasiser, and Ndegwa, identified citizen as “identification with a specific state as a form of personal identity” and followed by providing 2 definitions of citizenship, one liberal and the other civic republican. In both definitions one's obligations to the state makes them a part of the community. Thus those born to Qatari mothers living within the state are unquestionably part of society, yet, Is the social identity soullessly a factor of the state and not society?

Al-khour, A. explains that the national identity within the GCC has featured prominently since independence and became an integral part of the psyche of the citizens, thus a powerful sense of identity. He however follows explaining the paradoxical concepts that contribute to identity in the GCC. homogeneity of culture and social that defines and distinguished the GCC from other societies. This contributes to why children born to Qatari mothers are neglected in society, and considered aliens from dominant group.

Tjfel, emphasizes that social identity is extracted from the surrounding environment. Stating “any society which contains power, status, prestige and social group differentials places each of us in a number of social categories which becomes an integral part of our self-definition”, in this case; what is and what should be the identity of those born to Qatari mothers?

Zahra Barbar, provides a new dimension to reasons behind neglecting those born to Qatari mothers which focuses on the economic burden the state may face as a result of the extremely high welfare benefits and privileges provided to current citizens.

Turner and Sater however argue Zahra Barbar point, claiming that denial is merely based on reforms and perestroika burden.

Mr. Al-Shawi's literature highlights the heavy political influence tribes have on the state, thus if the state is reluctant to fully integrate this portion of society, it is highly dependent on pleasing tribes. This complies with the act of giving those born to Qatari mothers some rights within the state however denying them other rights.

Methodology

The methodology and data collection for this research paper were both qualitative and quantitative, with the goal of achieving a more reliable conclusions. Primary sources; One-on-one interviews, Survey semi-structured Secondary sources; books and journal articles, News Paper articles

Research and Discussion

The constitution lacks laws directly regulating rights of children born to Qatari mothers. This is a direct result of the constitution being relatively new; therefore, laws tend to result in complications and unintended prejudice. Only a hand full of laws clarify rights given to those born to Qatar mothers. Exhibit (A) Human Resources are required by law to prioritizes those born to Qatari mothers post Qatari's. Exhibit (B) Prioritization by law when acquiring Qatari nationality, yet subjected to 4 requirement (1) Must be regular residents in Qatar for over 25 years (2) must entail lawful means of income (3) Good reputation, and no convictions impugning their honor or integrity (4) Good knowledge of the Arabic language. However, even with prioritizing those born to Qatari mothers, the nationality is only given to 50 applicants per year. Additionally, individuals are still subjected to a form of social discrimination even after acquiring the citizenship this is a direct result of the social construction of the state “originals” and “naturalized”.

Finally, the law “Regulating Marriage to Foreigners” is the only law that gives right and not prioritization. It includes; right to residency if the mother lives in the state, granting minor children travelling documents, and equality to Qataris in 3 categories (A) Education (B) Healthcare and (C) Employment. Moreover, even though each right is accompanied with a condition which emphases on identity, these rights are only applicable if the marriage is endorsed by the minster of interior.

Qatari Society

(A) Society is unaware, indifferent and contributes to the emotional deterioration of those born to Qatari mothers for several reasons. 1- Assuming the father's identity is enough regardless of the place of birth and upbringing 2- Society doesn't resist integration on a daily bases, however, discriminates and refuse equality in terms of the law, and marriage. Reasons rage from their perceptions of Islam to economic burden (inconsistent treatment)

(B) The social construction of the state offers tribes a great political influence. This is because the states stability and security is highly dependent on tribesmen loyalty to the state. And while in peace the state instigates competition between tribes by providing privileges to some and not other because complete unity is not in it's best interest. This corresponds with giving those born to Qatari mothers some rights to maintain loyalty, while denying them the nationality.

Conclusion

Although the constitution lacks the appropriate laws to regulate rights of those born to Qatari mother, the issue lies in failure to implement available laws in addition to societies inconstancy in treatment and xenophobia, which manifested to a form of social identity crisis that level depends on the individual's integration into society.

In order to eliminate the social identity crisis, it is vital to follow some policy recommendation that follow the path of full naturalization, in addition to exempting this portion of society from the 50 applicant per one calendar year law.

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/content/papers/10.5339/qfarc.2016.SSHASP2671
2016-03-21
2019-10-21
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