This is a paper in progress, which deals with the progress of the concept of the National Innovation System, from a perspective of developing countries (particularly in the Arab Region), keeping in mind the different aspects of entrepreneurship based on the contributions of Schumpeterian economics. It examines three possible focus areas for NISs, including technological (The Research & Development/Science & Technology approach to innovation), non-technological (Innovation methods other than product innovation), and Cultural/Creative Industries. We argue that in the context of some developing countries with inadequate R&D infrastructures and economic development, the Cultural-Creative industries perspective can be more effective in strengthening innovation. We present three lenses that can help shed the light on the contribution of cultural and creative industries to innovation in these contexts. This paper makes a number of propositions, related to the effectiveness of R&D spending aiming to improve innovation in developing countries, and comparing the impact of supporting innovation through cultural industries versus R&D in the same context. We then propose certain expected areas where investments in cultural industries can strengthen innovation. The view taken is argumentatively opposed to some existing entrenched beliefs about the value of technical innovation, R&D efforts, and registering patents, particularly within a context lacking suitable network, scientific, and industrial infrastructures. The theoretical propositions are not - as of yet - supported by hard economic data due to the difficulty of capturing the construct and lack of suitable statistics, but the work is in the process of being refined and adapted. Presenting the theoretical contributions at this conference presents a number of synergies due to the high value placed on cultural resources, innovation, and the need for sustainable economic development. The argument will help spark a fruitful discussion on the propositions and refine the analysis related to building robust and powerful innovation systems in the region, supported by significant and solid cultural foundations.


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