A population of 503 adult Caucasians was recruited to evaluate the effect of diet on cardiovascular risk factors and its interaction with the genetic background. Nutritional data were collected by 24h recalls and Mediterranean diet adherence was investigated by QuADM-15 questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, and waist circumference), lipid profile, serum glucose, electrolytes, homocysteine and hpCRP were measured. The genome-wide tag-SNPs analysis was performed by Illumina 200K SNPs array, enriched by the imputation analysis. The Gene*Environment (G*E) analysis evaluated candidate genes and SNPs for the phenotypes HDL and LDL, and the interaction with diet (omnivores vs. vegetarians) and anthocyanins intake.

The dietary habit analysis identified 120 vegetarians and 374 omnivores. The distribution of macronutrients showed, as expected, a higher intake of animal proteins, saturated fatty acids and lower fiber intake in the omnivores. The consumption of anthocyanins and polyphenols was low in the entire population. Correlations were found between diet habits (omnivores vs vegetarians) and BMI (p


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