Abstract Gingival tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs) were recently identified and characterized as having multipotential differentiation and immunomodulatory properties in vitro and in vivo, and they represent new postnatal stem cell types for cytotherapy and regenerative medicine. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have very low morbidity, high efficiency and extensive differentiation ability. This study aimed at comparing the regenerative potential of pulp derived stem cells and gingival derived stem cells in periodontal alveolar defects through surgically created distal 3-walled periodontal defects with ligature-induced periodontitis were produced bilaterally in the premolar teeth in eight beagle dogs. Simultaneously, DPSCs were derived from the lower precanine teeth of the same dogs, and GMSCs were excised from interdental papilla from each defect site. Three months after creation of the periodontitis model, autologous DPSCs seeded in collagen sponge were implanted on one side as the test group, the other side was implanted with GMSCs seeded in collagen sponge, and unloaded collagen scaffold was used as control group, . Animals were then euthanized and regeneration of the periodontal defects was evaluated clinically in terms of clinical attachment level (CAL), probing depth (PD), and defect size (DS), histologically and histomorphometrically. Variables were compared between groups by pairwise wilcoxom statistical test. Results: All groups show decrease in PD, CAL, and DS with no statistical significant difference between gingival and pulp-derived stem cells groups at the mesial, distal sides as well as the furcation area (P-value = 0.452, 0.785 and 0.539, respectively).These results suggest that both gingival and pulp-derived stem/progenitor cells show significant periodontal regenerative potential.


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