Volume 2014, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 2221-9048
  • EISSN:


is a Castilian word for the transliteration of Iberian Romance languages through Arabic script that also addresses the investigative collaborations that took place in Spain between Christian, Muslim and Jewish scholars during the Middle Ages. The concept of can also be extended to the development of linear perspective in Florence as a transliteration of Islamic science and mathematics into Western visual expression. This paper addresses the cross-cultural currents between the medieval Muslim and Christian worlds as a series of transliterations that overlapped and eventually diverged only to be reconciled in an emerging global civilization in the twenty-first century.


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  • Article Type: Research Article
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