Volume 2015, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 2221-9048
  • EISSN:


Design is usually seen as a systematic practice engaged in by professionals, resulting in physical products for consumption. Yet, the internet and mobile technology have opened the field of design to non-professionals who have created several non-tangible, knowledge-based products including communication and language forms. The internet provides an unregulated space for various hybrid makings ranging from novel domains of communication and self-expression such as wikis and blogs to dynamic platforms for interaction such as Facebook, Twitter, and Internet Relay Chat. Regarding language, one such grassroots design product is , a unique linguistic blend of Arabic and English. This paper explores the origins, characteristics, and functions of 3arabizi as a case of language making in response to socio-environmental constraints and opportunities in online contexts. In particular, the paper highlights 3arabizi's use of arithmographemes i.e., keyboard numbers used as letters. Other hybrid online languages such as Greeklish (Greek-English) and SMSki (Russian-English) are also discussed.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Palfreyman D, Al Khalil M. “A Funky Language for Teenzz to Use:” Representing Gulf Arabic in Instant Messaging. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication. 2003; 9:1. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2003.tb00355.x .
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Danet B, Herring SC. Introduction. Chap. 1. In: Danet BHerring SC, ed. The Multilingual Internet: Language, Culture, and Communication Online. Oxford: Oxford University Press 2007:p.9.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Crystal D. Language and the Internet. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2001.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bianchi R. Revolution or Fad? Latinized Arabic Vernacular. In Proceedings of the 11th TESOL Arabia Conference: Teaching, Learning, Leading. Paper presented at The 11th Annual International TESOL Arabia Conference, Dubai. TESOL Arabia, Dubai 2006, March;:329344.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Tseliga T. “It's All Greeklish to Me!” Chap. 5. In: Danet BHerring SC, eds. The Multilingual Internet: Language, Culture, and Communication Online. Oxford: Oxford University Press 2007;:116141.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Mironovschi L. Russian SMS compliments. Written Language & Literacy. 2007; 10:1:5363.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...


Supplementary File 1

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): Arabic, Greek, RussianCMC and Latinization
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error