1887
Volume 2021, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0253-8253
  • EISSN: 2227-0426

Abstract

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinical and radiological entity initially described in 1996. PRES frequently develops in patients with preeclampsia and eclampsia. There is not much literature on risk factors causing PRES in pregnant patients with eclampsia. This study aimed to determine the incidence of PRES in eclampsia, its association with pregnancy, risk factors, and maternal and perinatal outcomes.

Patients and methods: All patients who were admitted with eclampsia and developed PRES in an intensive care unit of a tertiary medical facility between 1997 and 2017 were included in the study. Patients’ demographics, pregnancy and gestational data, treatment mode, and outcomes were retrospectively obtained from their medical charts/files. Data were entered using SPSS program version 23. Chi-square test was used to compare the variables, and a value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: A total of 151 patients were admitted during the study period, and 25 developed PRES. The diagnosis was common in patients older than 25 years. Eclampsia patients who developed PRES were without any pregnancy-associated comorbidities ( < 0.08). At the time of diagnosis, their gestational age was more than 36 weeks, which was significant ( < 0.04). Incidence was significantly higher in patients presenting with eclampsia and had recurrent seizures ( < 0.01 and 0.002, respectively). Its incidence was significantly higher in postpartum eclampsia patients ( < 0.01). It was also significantly higher in patients who had cesarean section and hypertension treated with labetalol ( < 0.001 and 0.02, respectively). Overall, the maternal mortality rate of eclampsia patients complicated with PRES was 4% in our population.

Conclusion: Of eclampsia patients, 16% developed PRES, which is on the lower side than the reviewed literature (10%–90%). Eclampsia on presentation, recurrent seizures, postpartum eclampsia, cesarean delivery, and labetalol use were associated with increased risk of PRES development.

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2021-02-16
2021-05-19
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