1887
Volume 2022, Issue 2
  • EISSN: 2708-0463

Abstract

صُمّم نظام المرشحات المتداخلة بوصفه مرشحاً حيوياً قائماً على قدرات التربة الفيزيوكيميائية والأحيائية لمعالجة ملوثات المياه العادمة، ويتميز من باقي الأنظمة الطبيعية المماثلة بحاجات أقل إلى الطاقة والمساحة والصيانة، وإمكانية إعادة استعمال المياه المعالجة في الموقع نفسه. يتكون النظام من طبقتين متباينتين من حيث المواد المستخدمة والمسامية: طبقات خليط التربة والطبقات النفاذة، المرصوصة في شكل يشبه اللبنات؛ حيث مكّن هذا التصميم البارع من تقليص احتمالية انسداد النظام، وزيادة قدرته على تلقّي أحجام كبرى من المياه العادمة، مع ازدواجية الظروف الهوائية واللاهوائية داخله؛ الشيء الذي أكسبه قدرات معالجة متقدمة لمختلف الملوثات بمختلف أنواع المياه العادمة اللامركزية. يهدف هذا البحث إلى التعريف بنظام المرشحات المتداخلة بوصفه تقنية بيئية صاعدة، حيث يلخص مبدأ عمله، وأدوار المواد المكونة له، وآليات معالجة مختلف الملوثات. ويستعرض نتائج بعض الاستخدامات الموفقة لهذا النظام عبر عدد من دول العالم، ونتائج دراسة التكلفة المنجزة التي أكدت انخفاض تكلفة بنائه، والتي لا تتعدى 80 دولاراً أمريكياً لمعالجة متر مكعب من المياه العادمة في اليوم لمدة 20 سنة متواصلة من الاستخدام. وأخيراً، يُظهر البحث، بناء على مقارنات بأنظمة مماثلة، مكامن القوة التي تجعل من هذا النظام بديلاً مستقبلياً ومستداماً للدول النامية كدول أفريقيا.

Multi-soil layering (MSL) is a wastewater treatment technology based on the advanced physico-chemical and biological abilities of soil to remediate decentralized wastewater pollutants. The MSL system is characterized by low space occupation, reduced maintenance, energetic needs, and offers the opportunity to the on-site reuse compared to similar natural wastewater treatment technologies. MSL is constructed through the succession of heterogeneous layers: soil mixture layers (SMLs) and permeable layers (PLs) in a brick-like configuration. This ingenious design enabled the system to sustain high hydraulic loads and minimized clogging risks with the coexistence of aero/anaerobic condition and to acquire advanced purifying capabilities for several decentralized wastewater types. This work aims to introduce MSL as an emerging Eco-technology, summarizes the operating principle, function of used materials, and removal mechanisms through the system. Moreover, this paper displays some successful applications across different countries and confirms the low-cost character of the system through an economical analysis that sets the construction cost in less than 80 US$ to treat 1m3/day during 20 consecutive years of operation. Finally, this study enumerates the MSL strengths in comparison to conventional technologies as a future sustainable alternative for developing nations such as the African countries.

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