Volume 2024, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0253-8253
  • EISSN: 2227-0426


Anemia in kidney transplant recipients can stem from a diverse array of etiologies, including dietary deficiencies, inflammatory processes, allograft dysfunction, as well as viral and bacterial infections. We present a case of refractory anemia in a 49-year-old male patient occurring within the initial month following a kidney transplant, which persisted despite numerous transfusions, posing a formidable challenge. The patient was maintained on the standard immunosuppressant regimen—Tacrolimus, Mycophenolate, and Prednisolone. Diagnostic evaluations eliminated well-established causes such as dietary deficiencies, gastrointestinal losses, and prevalent infections. Subsequently, after viral PCR testing, a diagnosis of Pure Red Cell Aplasia (PRCA) due to infection with parvovirus B19 was made. Although the patient had a reduction in the immunosuppression drugs and received a course of Intravenous Immunoglobulins (IVIG) on two separate occasions spanning two months, the anemia relapsed. Subsequently, after an additional dose of IVIG with further modification and reduction of the immunosuppressant regimen, including stopping the mycophenolate and switching tacrolimus with cyclosporine, the patient ultimately achieved successful resolution of his symptoms and a significant decrease in viral load. Our case highlights the significance of unconventional etiologies when confronted with anemia in the setting of kidney transplantation. Furthermore, it also provides further insights into therapeutic avenues for addressing PRCA in kidney transplant recipients.


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