1887
Volume 2023, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0253-8253
  • EISSN: 2227-0426

Abstract

Introduction: Rare earth magnets are powerful magnets that can have several negative effects if ingested. The goal of our study is to describe the result of multiple rare earth magnets ingested by children in Qatar.

Materials and methods: This is observational research. We conducted a retrospective chart review and descriptive analysis of all cases of multiple rare earth magnetic ingestion that werepresented to the Emergency Department of Sidra Medicine between January 2018 and July 2022. We obtained an exemption for this study from our institutional review board (IRB).

Results: In our research, we identified 21 children having multiple rare earth magnetic ingestions. The predominant symptoms were abdominal pain and vomiting which were observed in 57% (n = 12) and 48% (n = 10) of the patients respectively. The most common sign was abdominal tenderness,observed in 14% (n = 3) of the patients. In our sample, 38% (n = 8) of the patients were managed conservatively whereas 62% (n = 13) needed intervention. In our study, 48% (n = 10) of the patients sustained complications. The frequent complications were intestinal perforation appreciated in 24% (n = 5) and intestinal perforation with fistula formation in 19% (n = 4) of the patients. The median age of these patients was two years while the median number of magnets ingested was six. The ingestions were unwitnessed, and the duration of ingestions was unknowninthemajorityofpatientswhoexperiencedcomplications (n = 8/10).

Conclusion: If numerous rare earth magnetis ingested, children are in high danger of harm. It can be difficult to pinpoint the cases in younger children due to poor communication skills, especially if the intake is unreported. Although Qatar has established restrictions banning the import of rare earth magnets, there are reported cases of children with rare earth magnets ingestions.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.5339/qmj.2023.9
2023-02-20
2024-03-03
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/qmj/2023/1/qmj.2023.9.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.5339/qmj.2023.9&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Lee JH. Foreign body ingestion in Children. Clin Endosc. 2018 Mar; 51:(2):129–36.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Kay M, Wyllie R . Pediatric foreign bodies and their management. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2005 Jun; 7:(3):212–8.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Jayachandra S, Eslick GD . A systematic review of paediatric foreign body ingestion: presentation, complications, and management. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2013 Mar; 77:(3):311–7.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Reeves PT, Rudolph B, Nylund CM . Magnet ingestions in Children Presenting to Emergency Departments in The United States 2009–2019: a problem in flux. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2020 Dec; 71:(6):699–703.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Hodges NL, Denny SA, Smith GA . Rare-earth magnet ingestion-related injuries in the pediatric population: a review. Am J Lifestyle Med. 2017 May; 11:(3):259–63.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Gastrointestinal injuries from magnet ingestion in children–United States, 2003-2006. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2006 Dec 8; 55:(48):1296–300.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. De Roo AC, Thompson MC, Chounthirath T, Xiang H, Cowles NA, Shmuylovskaya L, et al. Rare-earth magnet ingestion-related injuries among children, 2000-2012. Clin Pediatr. 2013 Nov; 52:(11):1006–13.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Sola R Jr, Rosenfeld EH, Yu YR, St Peter SD, Shah SR . Magnet foreign body ingestion: rare occurrence but big consequences. J Pediatr Surg. 2018 Sep; 53:(9):1815–9.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Miyamoto R, Okuda M, Kaneko K, Numoto S, Okumura A . Multiple magnets ingestion followed by intestinal fistula with mild symptoms. Glob Pediatr Health. 2019 Jun 11;6:2333794X19855805.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Si X, Du B, Huang L . Multiple magnetic foreign bodies causing severe digestive tract injuries in a child. Case Rep Gastroenterol. 2016 Sep; 10:(3):720–7.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Kramer RE, Lerner DG, Lin T, Manfredi M, Shah M, Stephen TC, et al. Management of ingested foreign bodies in children: a clinical report of the NASPGHAN Endoscopy Committee. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2015 Apr; 60:(4):562–74.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Hussain SZ, Bousvaros A, Gilger M, Mamula P, Gupta S, Kramer R, et al.. Management of ingested magnets in children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2012 Sep; 55:(3):239–42.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Flaherty MR, Buchmiller T, Vangel M, Lee LK. Pediatric magnet ingestions after federal rule changes, 2009–2019. JAMA. 2020 Nov 24; 324:(20):2102–4.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Agbo C, Lee L, Chiang V, Landscahft A, Kimia T, Monuteaux MC, et al . Magnet-related injury rates in children: a single hospital experience. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2013 Jul; 57:(1):14–7.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Wang K, Zhang D, Li X, Wang Z, Hou G, Jia X, et al. Multicenter investigation of pediatric gastrointestinal tract magnets ingestion in China. BMC Pediatr. 2020 Feb 28; 20:(1):95.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Zheng Y, Zhang Z, Yan K, Guo H, Li M, Lian M, et al. Retrospective analysis of pediatric patients with multiple rare-earth magnets ingestion: a single-center experience from China. BMC Pediatr. 2021 Apr 17; 21:(1):179.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Taher H, Azzam A, Khowailed O, Elseoudi M, Shaban M, Eltagy G . A case report of an asymptomatic male child with multiple entero-enteric fistulae post multiple magnet ingestion. Int J Surg Case Rep. 2019 Apr 9;:58:50–3.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Waters AM, Teitelbaum DH, Thorne V, Bousvaros A, Noel RA, Beierle EA . Surgical management and morbidity of pediatric magnet ingestions. J Surg Res. 2015 Nov; 199:(1):137–40.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Bauman B, McEachron K, Goldman D, Louiselle A, Zheng E, Mills D, et al. Emergency management of the ingested magnet: an algorithmic approach. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2019 Aug; 35:(8):e141–4.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Nui A, Hirama T, Katsuramaki T, Maeda T, Meguro M, Nagayama M, et al. An intestinal volvulus caused by multiple magnet ingestion: an unexpected risk in children. J Pediatr Surg. 2005 Sep; 40:(9):e9–11.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Consumer Product Safety Commission. Final Rule: Safety Standard for Magnet Sets [Internet]. Vol. 79, Federal Register. 2014. p. 59961–89. Available from: link="https://www.federalregister.gov/d/2014-23341..
  22. Reeves PT, Nylund CM, Krishnamurthy J, Noel RA, Abbas MI . Trends of magnet ingestion in children, an ironic attraction. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2018 May; 66:(5):e116–21.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Consumer Product Safety Commission. Safety Standard for Magnet Sets; Removal of Final Rule Vacated by Court [Internet]. Vol. 82, Federal Register. 2017. p. 12716–7. . Available from: https://www.federalregister.gov/d/2017-04381.
  24. CPSC Approves New Federal Safety Standard for Magnets to Prevent Deaths and Serious Injuries from High-powered magnet ingestion [Internet]. U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. [cited 2022 Oct 18]. Available from: https://www.cpsc.gov/Newsroom/News-Releases/2022/CPSC-Approves-New-Federal-Safety-Standard-for-Magnets-to-Prevent-Deaths-and-Serious-Injuries-from-High-Powered-Magnet-Ingestion.
  25. Hodge D 3rd, Tecklenburg F, Fleisher G . Coin ingestion: does every child need a radiograph? Ann Emerg Med. 1985 May; 14:(5):443–6.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. ASGE Standards of Practice Committee, Ikenberry SO, Jue TL, Anderson MA, Appalaneni V, Banerjee S, et al. Management of ingested foreign bodies and food impactions. Gastrointest Endosc. 2011 Jun; 73:(6):1085–91.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Guelfguat M, Kaplinskiy V, Reddy SH, DiPoce J . Clinical guidelines for imaging and reporting ingested foreign bodies. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2014 Jul; 203:(1):37–53.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Tseng HJ, Hanna TN, Shuaib W, Aized M, Khosa F, Linnau KF . Imaging foreign bodies: Ingested, aspirated, and inserted. Ann Emerg Med. 2015 Dec; 66:(6):570–82.e5.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.5339/qmj.2023.9
Loading
/content/journals/10.5339/qmj.2023.9
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): ChildrenIntestinal perforation and Rare Earth Magnets
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error