1887
Volume 2022, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0253-8253
  • EISSN: 2227-0426

Abstract

Background: Vitamin D is considered a potent modulator of the immune system, albeit its role in COVID-19 infection is a matter of debate. The present study aimed to estimate the association between serum vitamin D levels and COVID-19 among people in Qatar.

Methods: This case-control study, approved by the Institutional Review Board of Primary Health Care Corporation (PHCC) Qatar, retrospectively evaluated the principal public healthcare sector population data repository retrieved from the cloud-based Electronic Health Record (EHR) software-Cerner, during April 2020–2021. The health records of all adult patients aged >18 years who had undergone the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test and whose medical records had documented serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25 (OH)D] levels were analyzed.

Results: A total of 924,173 EHRs were extracted, of which 62,451 EHR comprised of 16,446 (26.3%) COVID-19 patients and 46,005 (73.7%) negative-control group patients met the inclusion criteria. The odds ratio (OR) among different categories of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) revealed that people with mild/moderate VDD were 1.18 times (95% CI 1.126–1.258) and those with severe VDD were 1.90 times (95% CI 1.116–1.251) more likely to have COVID-19 infection when compared to the people with optimal serum vitamin D level. On applying multiple logistic regression, the odds of having COVID-19 infection were found to be 1.27 times (95% CI 1.184–1.371) higher among those with mild/moderate VDD and 1.32 times (95% CI 1.206–1.405) higher among those with severe VDD when compared to people with optimal vitamin D level ( < 0.001).

Conclusion: Our findings demonstrated a significant association between the suboptimal serum vitamin D level and COVID-19 infection. Further studies are required to determine the effects of VDD on the severity and outcomes of COVID-19 infections.

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2022-12-01
2024-03-03
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  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): COVID-19QatarRT-PCRSARS-CoV-2Serum 25(OH)D and Vitamin D Deficiency
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