1887
Volume 2022, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0253-8253
  • EISSN: 2227-0426

Abstract

Background: Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common and potentially life-threatening condition. This comprehensive study from a Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) country aimed to evaluate the clinical, radiological, and outcome characteristics associated with acute PE.

Methods: This retrospective observational study analyzed data of patients with confirmed acute PE who were admitted to the largest academic tertiary center in the State of Qatar from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2018. Data on the clinical presentation, radiologic, and echocardiographic findings, as well as outcomes were collected.

Results: A total of 436 patients were diagnosed with acute PE during the study period (male, 53%). Approximately 56% of the patients were < 50 years old at presentation, with a median age of 47 years. In approximately 69% of cases, the PE occurred outside the hospital. The main associated comorbidities were obesity (34.6%), hypertension (29.4%), and diabetes (25%). Immobilization (25.9%) and recent surgery (20.6%) were the most common risk factors. The most frequent presenting symptom was dyspnea (39.5%), and the most frequent signs were tachycardia (49.8%) and tachypnea (45%). Cardiac arrest was the initial presentation in 2.2% of cases. Chest X-ray findings were normal in 41%. On computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA), 41.3% of the patients had segmental PE, 37.1% had central PE, and 64.1% had bilateral PE. The main electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormality was sinus tachycardia (98%). In patients who underwent echocardiography, right ventricular (RV) enlargement was the main echocardiographic finding (36.4%). Low-, intermediate-, and high-risk PE constituted 49.8%, 31.4%, and 18.8% of the cases, respectively. Thrombolysis was prescribed in 8.3% of the total and 24.4% of the high-risk PE cases. Complications of PE and its treatment (from admission up to 6 months post-discharge) included minor bleeding (14%), major bleeding (5%), PE recurrence (4.8%), and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) (5%). A total of 15 (3.4%) patients died from PE.

Conclusions: Acute PE can manifest with complex and variable clinical and radiological syndromes. Striking findings in this study are the younger age of acute PE occurrence and the low PE-related mortality rate.

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2022-05-09
2022-07-01
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  • Article Type: Case Report
Keyword(s): clinical featuresmortalitypulmonary embolism and Venous thromboembolism
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