1887
Volume 2021, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0253-8253
  • EISSN: 2227-0426

Abstract

Allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients are at risk of BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis. This condition causes a significant morbidity and worsens clinical outcomes. The standard cares for BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis are saline irrigation and forced diuresis. Notably, several beneficial roles are proposed for antiviral and anti-inflammatory agents against BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis. However, cases who are at risk of cystectomy remain refractory. Herein, we present a 13-year-old boy with severe hematuria by passing two months from his allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The laboratory work up showed high BK viremia >1.1 ×  108 copies/ml in this case's urine sample. The patient was treated with antiviral agents in combination with supportive care. Moreover, intravesical alum was administered, but no clinical benefits were achieved. Finally, intravesical alprostadil was prepared under the supervision of a pediatric clinical pharmacist. In this regard, an alprostadil solution was prepared by constitution of 250 μg alprostadil in 50 mL saline. After administrating the first dose of intravesical alprostadil, an acceptable clinical response was observed, and hematuria stopped. Of note, alprostadil induces platelet aggregation and vasoconstriction. Thus, bleeding can be controlled after the administration of intravesical alprostadil. This strategy may be associated with several side effects including bladder spasm. This study is the first report describing the special role of intravesical alprostadil in refractory cases of BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis. In such refractory cases, clinicians can use intravesical alprostadil rather than invasive therapies in the treatment of BK virus-hemorrhagic cystitis.

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2021-10-07
2021-10-26
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  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): allogeneic stem cell transplant , alprostadil , BK virus and hemorrhagic cystitis
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