1887
2 - Qatar Critical Care Conference Proceedings
  • ISSN: 0253-8253
  • EISSN: 2227-0426

Abstract

Haemorrhagic and ischemic stroke is the second most common cause of death worldwide, with more than 10 million cases each year1. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, hyperlipidemia, and aging are the most common risk factors of this cerebrovascular disease2. Mortality and disability increase with the complications experienced during the early phase of stroke, such as infection, seizures, and thromboembolism3. The intensive care unit (ICU) is the most appropriate treatment environment for stroke patient care in developing countries4. The aims of this study were to determine the ICU and in-hospital mortality of ischemic stroke patients admitted to the ICU within 24 hours of hospitalization, and the factors that determine and affect the outcomes of ischemic stroke to predict patients requiring early ICU admission. This is a retrospective study looking at the data of patients admitted to the intensive care unit in Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) with an ischemic stroke diagnosis within 24 hours of hospitalization from 1st January 2013 to 31th December 2017. There were 37 patients admitted to the ICU immediately from the emergency department because of ischemic stroke during the study period. There were 14 patients who died in the ICU, 2 died in-hospital after discharge from ICU, and the others were discharged from hospital (Table 1). There were 21 male patients and 16 females, with a mean age of 61.05 years. Most patients had comorbidities and risk factors that lead to poor outcome, the most common being diabetes mellitus (70.3%) and hypertension (67.6%). However, there was no association between blood pressure and glycemic control on admission with outcome (chi-square test,  = (0.667), (0.505) respectively). CT, MRI, and CT angiography are the most common diagnostic imaging tools used for ischemic stroke. We classified CT brain findings on admission according to the location of infarction. Middle cerebral artery infarction was present in 40.5% of the patients, 18.9% had other cerebral infarction, 10.8% had brain stem infarction, and the same proportion of patients had lacunar infarction, and the rest showed no abnormality. The two main reasons for admission to ICU were coma (73.0%) and neurological monitoring post-thrombolysis (24.3%). The rest were admitted because of respiratory failure. In ICU, 48.6% received intravenous thrombolysis and the majority of patients were discharged. Others were out of the therapeutic window and had a high chance of haemorrhagic transformation. Patients developed complications after ICU admission as shown in Figure 1. There was a significant association between ICU mortality and ICU complications, (chi-square test,  < 0.05). The mortality of ischemic stroke patients admitted to ICU within 24 hours of hospitalization in the study period was 43.2% with higher prevalence among older and male patients. The majority of these patients had comorbidities and risk factors that lead to a poor outcome. The main two reasons for admission to ICU were impaired consciousness and neurological monitoring post-thrombolysis. The outcome can be improved by preventing such complications and therefore reducing ICU mortality. More studies are recommended to find more factors that can predict the outcome of ischemic stroke.

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2019-11-05
2020-07-08
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References

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  • Article Type: Conference Abstract
Keyword(s): intensive care unit , mortality and stroke
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