1887
Volume 2017, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0253-8253
  • E-ISSN: 2227-0426

Abstract

Nutritional disorders still represent a major problem faced by developing countries. Surveying such problems is a step towards planning proper interventions, which contributes significantly to declines in under-five mortality rates. To study the state of nutritional trends in children under five years of age, attending a primary healthcare center in Al Shoula district, Iraq, in 2006 and 2012. Demographic features and feeding practices that may have had an effect on the nutritional status of children were also studied. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted on children aged two to five years, in a primary healthcare center in Baghdad. Children attending for immunization were included (500 in 2006 and 570 in 2012), their mothers were interviewed, and the body mass index of the child was calculated. Children who were overweight and obese were identified, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention charts, as those suffering from stunting. Nutritional parameters were compared between the two study groups, using the chi-square test, as well as various epidemiological factors that may have affected the outcomes. The prevalence of both types of nutritional disorders (stunting and overweight and obesity) declined remarkably according to the 2012 survey; overweight and obesity declined from 20% to 7.2%, while stunting decreased from 51.2% to 30.9%. The age group showing the highest rate of improvement were the four to five year olds, as well as children from lower-income families. A higher rate of breastfeeding was reported in 2012, and breastfed babies suffered the least from both types of nutritional disorders, in both study groups. Overall, the study findings showed a high prevalence of stunting (30.9%), together with a significant level of overweight and obesity (7.2%). Children in Iraq suffer from high rates of stunting. With a moderately high rate of obesity, there is an urgent need to evaluate local data available and plan for an active intervention to combat these nutritional problems.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.5339/qmj.2017.5
2017-08-16
2019-11-13
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/qmj/2017/2/qmj.2017.5.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.5339/qmj.2017.5&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Haddad L, Achadi E, Ag Bendech M, Ahuja A, Bhatia K, Bhutta Z, et al.  The global nutrition report 2014: Actions and accountability to accelerate the worlds progress on nutrition. J Nutr. 2015; 145::663671.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Adair LS, Fall CH, Osmond C, Stein AD, Martorell R, Ramirez-Zea M, et al.  Associations of linear growth and relative weight gain during early life with adult health and human capital in countries of low and middle income: Findings from five birth cohort studies. Lancet. 2013; 382::525534.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Tzioumis E, Adair LS. Childhood dual burden of under- and over-nutrition in low- and middle-income countries: A critical review. Food Nutr Bull. 2014; 35:2:230243.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. van Grieken A, Renders CM, Wijtzes AI, Hirasing RA, Raat H. Overweight, obesity and underweight is associated with adverse psychosocial and physical health outcomes among 7-year-old children: The ‘be active, eat right’ study. PLoS ONE. 2013; 8:6:e67383.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Procter KL. The aetiology of childhood obesity: A review. Nutr Res Rev. 2007; 20::2945.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Kopelman P, Jebb SA, Butland B. Executive summary: Foresight ‘Tackling obesities: Future choices’ project. Obes Rev. 2007; 8::viix.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Janssen I, Katzmarzyk PT, Srinivasan SR, Chen W, Malina RM, Bouchard C, et al.  Utility of childhood BMI in the prediction of adulthood disease: Comparison of national and international references. Obes Res. 2005; 13:6:11061115.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. World Health Organization. Sixty-sixth world health assembly. 6 May 2013. Draft action plan for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases 2013–2020. Report by the Secretariat.
  9. Kelishadi R. Childhood overweight, obesity and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries. Epidemiol Rev. 2007; 29::6276.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Gabriel CG, Corso ACT, Caldeira GV, Gimeno SG, Schmitz Bde A, de Vasconcelos Fde A. Overweight and obesity related factors in schoolchildren in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2010; 60:4:332339.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. de Onis M, Blössner M, Borghi E. Global prevalence and trends of overweight and obesity among preschool children. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010; 92::12571264.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Guo SS, Chumlea WC. Tracking of body mass index in children in relation to overweight in adulthood. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999; 70:suppl:145S148S.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. de Onis M, Blossner M. Prevalence and trends of overweight among preschool children in developing countries. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000; 72::10321039.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Sawaya AL. Stunting and future risk of obesity: Principal physiological mechanism. Cad Saude Publica. 2003; 19::S21S28.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. El Taguri A, Besmar F, Abdel Monem A, Betilmal I, Ricour C, Rolland-Cachera MF. Stunting is a major risk factor for overweight: Results from national surveys in 5 Arab countries. East Mediterr Health J. 2009; 15:3:549562.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Prentice AM. The emerging epidemic of obesity in developing countries. Int J Epidemiol. 2006; 35:1:9399.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Papandreou C, Mourad TA, Jildeh C, Abdeen Z, Philalithis A, Tzanakis N. National prevalence of obesity: Obesity in Mediterranean region (1997–2007): A systemic review. Obes Rev. 2008; 9::389399.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Black RE, Victora CG, Walker SP, Bhutta ZA, Christian P, de Onis M, et al.  Maternal and child undernutrition and overweight in low-income and middle-income countries. Lancet. 2013; 382::427451.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Cogill B. Anthropometric Evaluation and Annual Montoring Indicators: In Anthropometric indicators measurement guide. Food and nutrition technical assistance project, Academy for educational development, Washington DC, 2003.
  20. 2000 CDC Growth charts for the United States: Methods and development. Department of health and human services. Centers for disease control and prevention. Vital and health stastics, series 11, No. 246, May 2002.
  21. WHO Working Group. Use and interpretation of anthropometric indicators of nutritional status. Bull World Health Organ. 1986; 64:6:929941.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. WHO. Obesity and overweight, Fact sheet No. 311. 2011. Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/ .
  23. Mirmiran P, Sherafat-Kazemzadeh R, Jalali-Farahani S, Azizi F. Child obesity in Middle East: A review. East Mediterr Health J. 2010; 16:9:10091017.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. International Food Policy Research Institute. Global nutrition report 2014: Actions and accountability to accelerate the world's progress on nutrition [Internet]. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute; 2014 [cited 2014 Jan 30]. Available from: http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/gnr14.pdf .
  25. Sherry B, Mei Z, Scanlon KS, Mokdad AH, Grummer-Strawn LM. Trends in state specific prevalence of overweight and underweight in 2- through 4-year-old children from low-income families from 1989 through 2000. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004; 158:12:11161124.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Irigoyen M, Glassman ME, Chen S, Findley SE. Early onset of overweight and obesity among low-income 1- to 5-year olds in New York City. J Urban Health. 2008; 85:4:545554.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Birch LL, Fisher JO. Development of eating behaviors among children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 1998; 101:3 Pt 2:539549.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Zhang L, Kolbo JR, Kirkup M, Molaison EF, Harbaugh BL, Werle N, et al.  Prevalence and trends in overweight and obesity among Mississippi public school students, 2005–2013. J Miss State Med Assoc. 2014; 55::8087.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Skinner AC, Skelton JA. Prevalence and trends in obesity and severe obesity among children in the United States, 1999–2012. JAMA Pediatr. 2014; 168::561566.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. De Wilde JA, Verkerk PH, Middelkoop BJ. Declining and stabilising trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity in Dutch, Turkish, Moroccan and South Asian children 3–16 years of age between 1999 and 2011 in the Netherlands. Arch Dis Child. 2014; 99::4651.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Olds TS, Tomkinson GR, Ferrar KE, et al.  Trends in the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity in Australia between 1985 and 2008. Int J Obes (Lond). 2010; 34::5766.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Van Jaarsveld CHM, Gulliford MC. Childhood obesity trends from primary care electronic health records in England between 1994 and 2013: Population based cohort study. Arch Dis Child. 2015;16.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Ogden CL, Carrol MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011–2012. JAMA. 2014; 311:8:806814.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Jansen PW, Mensah FK, Nicholson JM, Wake M. Family and neighbourhood socioeconomic inequalities in childhood trajectories of BMI and overweight: Longitudinal study of Australian children. PLoS One. 2013; 8:7:e69676.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Howe LD, Tilling K, Galobardes B, Smith GD, Ness AR, Lawlor DA. Socioeconomic disparities in trajectories of adiposity across childhood. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2011; 6:2–2:e144e153.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Oliver LN, Hayes MV. Effects of neighbourhood income on reported body mass index: An eight year longitudinal study of Canadian children. BMC Public Health. 2008; 8::16.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Laws R, Campbell KJ, van der Pligt P, Russell G, Ball K, John Lynch J, et al.  The impact of interventions to prevent obesity or improve obesity related behaviours in children (0–5 years) from socioeconomically disadvantaged and/or indigenous families: A systematic review. BMC Public Health. 2014; 14::779.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Gibbs B, Forste R. Socioeconomic status, infant feeding practices and early childhood obesity. Pediatr Obes. 2014; 9:2:135146.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Musaiger AO. Overweight and obesity in eastern mediterranean region: Prevalence and possible causes. J Obes. 2011; 2011::407237. Published online 18 September 2011. PMCID:PMC3175401, doi: 10.1155/2011/407237.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Ali OF, Eladawi N, Abdel-Baky A, Abdel-gawad A. Assessment of nutritional status of under 5 years rural children in Delta region in Egypt. Aust J Basic & Appl Sci. 2014; 8:15:5359.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Kassawneh M, Khader Y, Amarin Z, Alkafajei A. Knowledge, attitude and practice of breastfeeding in the north of Jordan: A cross-sectional study. Int Breastfeed J. 2006; 1::17.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Musa WA, Hassan MK. Overweight and obesity among preschool children in Basrah. MJBU. 2010; 28:1:18.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Al-Qaoud N, Prakash P. Breastfeeding and obesity among Kuwaiti preschool children. Administration of Food and Nutrition, Med Princ Pract. 2009; 18::111117.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Khatoon T, Mollal MA, Choudhury AM, Islam MM, Rahman KM. Association between infant-and child-feeding index and nutritional status: Results from a cross-sectional study among children attending an urban hospital in Bangladish. J Health Popul Nutr. 2011; 29:4:349356.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Kelishadi R, Hashemi Pour M, Sarraf-Zadegan N, Sadry GH, Ansari R, Alikhassy H, et al., Obesity and associated modifiable environmental factors in Iranian adolescents: Isfahan healthy Heart program – heart health promotion from childhood. Pediatr Int. 2003; 45:4:435442.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Farahat TM, Mechael AA, Abu-Salem M. Prevalence of obesity among preschool children in Menofia, Egypt. Arab J Food Nutr. 2003; 8::107118.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. World Health Statistics. WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data. Risk Factors, Table 5. WHO, 2010.
  48. National Institute of Population Research and Training. Bangladesh demographic and health Survey 2007. National Institute of Population Research and Training, Dhaka, 2009:346.
  49. De Onis M, Blössner M, Borghi E. Prevalence and trends of stunting among pre-school children, 1990–2020. Public Health Nutr. 2020; 15::142148. doi:10.1017/S1368980011001315.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.5339/qmj.2017.5
Loading
/content/journals/10.5339/qmj.2017.5
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): obesity , overweight , Preschool children and stunting trends
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error