1887
Volume 2016, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0253-8253
  • E-ISSN: 2227-0426

Abstract

Morgues are high risk areas for the spread of infection from cadavers to staff during the post-mortem examination. Infection can spread from corpses to workers by airborne transmission, by direct contact, or through needle and sharp object injuries. Knowledge about the prevalence of these infections on autopsy is essential to determine the risk of transmission and to further enforce safety measures. This is a descriptive study. All autopsies performed in the Department of Forensic Medicine at Jordan University Hospital during the study period were tested for the serology of human immunodeficiency, hepatitis B and C viruses. Positive tests were confirmed by nucleic acid testing. A total of 242 autopsies were tested. Age ranged from 3 days to 94 years (median 75.5 years, mean 45.3 years (21.9 ±  SD)). There were 172 (71%) males. The cause of death was considered natural in 137 (56.6%) cases, accidental in 89 (36.8%), homicide in nine (3.7%), suicide in four (1.7%), and unknown in three (1.2%) cases. Hepatitis B surface antigen was positive in five (2.1%) cases. Hepatitis C virus antibody was positive in five (2.1%) cases and the hepatitis C virus polymerase chain reaction was positive in two (0.8%) cases. HIV antibody was not detected in any of the cases. The infection status of cases was not associated with age, sex, nationality, or cause of death. The study findings indicated that there is a low prevalence of virus-infected autopsies in Jordan. However, the risk of transmission remains a potential threat and therefore the necessary precautions should always be taken during autopsy.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.5339/qmj.2016.14
2017-04-21
2019-12-06
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/qmj/2016/2/qmj.2016.14.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.5339/qmj.2016.14&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Shoja MM, Benninger B, Agutter P, Loukas M, Tubbs RS. A historical perspective: infection from cadaveric dissection from the 18th to 20th centuries. Clin Anat. 2013; 26:2:154160. doi:10.1002/ca.22169.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Burton JL. Health and safety at necropsy. J Clin Pathol. 2003; 56:4:254260. doi:10.1136/jcp.56.4.254.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Nolte KB, Taylor DG, Richmond JY. Biosafety considerations for autopsy. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2002; 23:2:107122. doi:10.1097/00000433-200206000-00001.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Okoth-Okelloh AM, Onyango R, Tonui WK, Okumu W, Ouma C. Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) in the Morgues: Management and practice of the universal precautions in Morgues in Kenya. Biosafety. 2015; 4:1:121. doi:10.4172/2167-0331.1000121.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Roberts LG, Dabbs GR, Spencer JR. An update on the hazards and risks of forensic anthropology. Part I: Human remains. J Forensic Sci. 2016 Jan; 61:Suppl 1:S5S13.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Kerr HL, Stewart N, Pace A, Elsayed S. Sharps injury reporting amongst surgeons. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2009; 91:5:430432. doi:10.1308/003588409X432194.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Short LJ, Bell DM. Risk of occupational infection with blood-borne pathogens in operating and delivery room settings. Am J Infect Control. 1993; 21:6:343350. doi:10.1016/0196-6553(93)90400-X.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Li L, Zhang X, Constantine NT, Smialek J. Seroprevalence of parenterally transmitted viruses (HIV-1, HBV, HCV, and HTLV-I/II) in forensic autopsy cases. J Forensic Sci. 1993; 38:5:10751083. doi:10.1520/JFS13510J.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Christensen PB, Kringsholm B, Banner J, Thomsen JL, Cowan S, Stein GF, Jürgensen GW, Grasaasen K, Georgsen J, Pedersen C. Surveillance of HIV and viral hepatitis by analysis of samples from drug related deaths. Eur J Epidemiol. 2006; 21:5:383387. doi:10.1007/s10654-006-9009-x.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Eriksen MB, Jakobsen MA, Kringsholm B, Banner J, Thomsen JL, Georgsen J, Pedersen C, Christensen PB. Postmortem detection of hepatitis B, C, and human immunodeficiency virus genomes in blood samples from drug-related deaths in Denmark. J Forensic Sci. 2009; 54:5:10851088. doi:10.1111/j.1556-4029.2009.01111x.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Heim A, Wagner D, Rothämel T, Hartmann U, Flik J, Verhagen W. Evaluation of serological screening of cadaveric sera for donor selection for cornea transplantation. J Med Virol. 1999; 58:3:291295. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-9071(199907)58:3 < 291:AID-JMV16>3.0.CO;2-D.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Takamatsu J, Tsuda F, Okudaira M. Infection with GB virus C, hepatitis C and B viruses in 1,044 cases autopsied at the Medical Examiner's Office in Tokyo. J Med Virol. 1998; 55:2:123128. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-9071(199806)55:2 < 123:AID-JMV7>3.0.CO;2-4.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Lazrek M, Goffard A, Schanen C, Karquel C, Bocket L, Lion G, Devaux M, Hedouin V, Gosset D, Hober D. Detection of hepatitis C virus antibodies and RNA among medicolegal autopsy cases in Northern France. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2006; 55:1:5558. doi:10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2005.10.018.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Miedouge M, Chatelut M, Mansuy JM, Rostaing L, Malecaze F, Sandres-Sauné K, Boudet F, Puel J, Abbal M, Izopet J. Screening of blood from potential organ and cornea donors for viruses. J Med Virol. 2002; 66:4:571575. doi:10.1002/jmv.2183.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Yadav A, Pathak D, Alam F, Vyas N. Seroprevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV among the cadaver population – A Jaipur based study. Med Leg Update. 2014; 14:1:7579. doi:10.5958/j.0974-1283.14.1.018.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Sanaei-Zadeh H, Amoei M, Taghaddosinejad F. Seroprevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV in forensic autopsies, of presumed low risk, in Tehran, the capital of Iran. J Clin Forensic Med. 2002; 9:4:179181. doi:10.1016/S1353-1131(02)00132-3.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Tofigi H, Ghorbani M, Akhlaghi M, Yaghmaei A, Mostafazadeh B, Farzaneh E, Mohaghegh AR. Incidence of hepatitis B and HIV virus at cadaver of IV drug abusers in Tehran. Acta Med Iran. 2011; 49:1:5963.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Cattaneo C, Nuttall PA, Molendini LO, Pellegrinelli M, Grandi M, Sokol RJ. Prevalence of HIV and hepatitis C markers among a cadaver population in Milan. J Clin Pathol. 1999; 52:4:267270. doi:10.1136/jcp.52.4.267.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Uphoff CC, Denkmann SA, Steube KG, Drexler HG. Detection of EBV, HBV, HCV, HIV-1, HTLV-I and -II, and SMRV in human and other primate cell lines. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2010; 2010:904767.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Mehta S, Singh V, Kaur B, Aggarwal OP. Pre-testing screening for HIV before conducting post-mortem examinations. JK Science. 2012; 14::7072.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Wilkemeyer I, Pruss A, Kalus U, Schroeter J. Comparative infectious serology testing of pre- and post-mortem blood samples from cornea donors. Cell Tissue Bank. 2012; 13:3:447452. doi:10.1007/s10561-012-9326-0.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Gubbe K, Scharnagl Y, Grosch S, Tonn T, Schmidt M, Hourfar KM, Karl A, Seifried E, Wilkemeyer I, Kalus U. Validation of virus NAT for HIV, HCV, HBV and HAV using post-mortal blood samples. Transfus Med Hemother. 2012; 39:6:381385. doi:10.1159/000345319.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Theodoropoulos N, Jaramillo A, Ladner DP, Ison MG. Deceased organ donor screening for HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C viruses: a survey of organ procurement organization practices. Am J Transplant. 2013; 13:8:21862190. doi:10.1111/ajt.12260.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Toukan AU. Hepatitis B virus infection in urban residents of Jordan with particular reference to socioeconomic factors. Trop Gastroenterol. 1987; 8::161166.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Al Hijazat M, Ajlouni YM. Hepatitis B infection among patients receiving chronic hemodialysis at the Royal Medical Services in Jordan. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2008; 19::260267.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Batayneh N, Bdour S. Risk of perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus in Jordan. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2002; 10:3:127132. doi:10.1155/S1064744902000121.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Said WM, Saleh R, Jumaian N. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus among chronic schizophrenia patients. East Mediterr Health J. 2001; 7::526530.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Hamoudi W, Ali SA, Abdallat M, Estes CR, Razavi HA. HCV infection prevalence in a population recruited at health centers in Jordan. J Epidemiol Glob Health. 2013; 3:2:6771. doi:10.1016/j.jegh.2013.02.003.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Bakri FG, Al-Azzeh RS, Irshaid AA, Hijjawi B. Human immunodeficiency virus disease in Jordan – data from the National AIDS Program from 1986 until 2008. Int J Infect Dis. 2010; 14:10:e923e924. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2010.06.010.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.5339/qmj.2016.14
Loading
/content/journals/10.5339/qmj.2016.14
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): autopsy , hepatitis B virus , hepatitis C virus , human immunodeficiency virus and Jordan
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error