1887
Volume 2014, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0253-8253
  • EISSN: 2227-0426

Abstract

Research on sleep health is lacking in developing countries, particularly among the Sudanese population. This contributes to a number of social and safety risks such as workplace injury, daytime sleepiness, automobile accidents, and more. The current study aims to validate three Arabic questionnaires related to sleep health, namely the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS). A random sample of 83 Sudanese participants was surveyed for the purpose of testing the reliability and validity of the Arabic version of the , ISI, and RLS. The present study used exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of item scores to examine a potential single-factor structure of the ESS, ISI, and RLS. Reliability and validity of the instruments were assessed by internal consistency and construct validity, respectively. The internal consistency within the ESS, ISI, and RLS subscales was high, with Cronbach's alpha of 0.84, 0.87, and 0.94, respectively. EFA results showed the RLS and ISI scales were dominated by a single-factor structure that explained at least 84.2% and 65.70% respectively of the total variance. The ESS required a two-factor solution that explained 64.5% of the total variance, so the single-factor structure does not appear to be a good measure of the Arabic version of the ESS. The Arabic versions of the ESS, ISI, and RLS are valid and reliable tools. The RLS and ISI seem to have better psychometric properties than the ESS.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.5339/qmj.2014.20
2015-02-01
2020-11-28
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/qmj/2014/2/qmj.2014.20.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.5339/qmj.2014.20&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Takegami Misa, Hayashino Yasuaki, Chin Kazuo, Sokejima Shigeru, Kadotani Hiroshi, Akashiba Tsuneto, Kimura Hiroshi, Ohi Motoharu, Fukuhara Shunichi. Simple Four-Variable Screening Tool for Identification of Patients with Sleep Disordered Breathing. Sleep. 2009; 32:7:939948.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Roehrs Timothy, Roth Thomas. Caffeine: Sleep and daytime sleepiness. Sleep Medicine Reviews. 2008; 12::153162.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Zhang Qi-jun, Zhang Qiao-li, Sun Xin-yang, Zhang Li-yi, Zhang Si-yuan, Yao Gao-feng, Chen Chun-xia, Kong Ling-ming. Relationship between acute stress and sleep disorder in grass-root military personnel: mediating effect of social support. Military Medical Research. 2014; 1::3. doi:10.1186/2054-9369-1-3.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Mellman TA. Sleep and anxiety disorders. The Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 2006; 29::10471058.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Gillin JC. Are sleep disturbances risk factors for anxiety, depressive and addictive disorders? Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 1998; 393::3943.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Neckelmann D, Mykletun A, Dahl AA. Chronic insomnia as a risk factor for developing anxiety and depression. Sleep. 2007; 30::873880.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Batterham PJ, Glozier N, Christensen H. Sleep disturbance, personality and the onset of depression and anxiety: prospective cohort study. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2012; 46::10891098.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Chilcott LA, Shapiro CM. The socioeconomic impact of insomnia. Pharmacoeconomics. 1996; 10::114.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Stoller MK. Economic effects of insomnia. Clin Ther. 1994; 16::873897.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. National Commission on Sleep Disorders Research. Wake up America: A national sleep alert. Vol. 1, Executive Summary and Report Bethesda, MD: Department of Health and Human Sciences 1993.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Léger D, Poursain B, Neubauer D, Uchiyama M. An international survey of sleeping problems in the general population. Curr Med Res Opin. 2008; 24::307317.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Punnoose AR, Golub RM, Burke AE. Insomnia. The Journal of the American Medical Association. 2012; 307::26532653, Doi:10.1001/jama.2012.6219.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Morin CM. Insomnia: psychological assessment and management. 104. New York: Guilford Press 1993;:205207.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Suleiman KH, Yates BC. Translating the insomnia severity index into Arabic. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2011; 43::4953.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Johns MW. A new method for measuring daytime sleepiness: the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Sleep. 1991;5055.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Johns MW. Reliability and factor analysis of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Sleep. 1992; 15::376381.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Roth T, Roehrs TA. Etiologies and sequelae of excessive daytime sleepiness. Clin Ther. 1996; 18::562572.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Ahmed Anwar E, Fatani Abdulhamid, Al-Harbi Abdullah, Al-Shimemeri Abdullah, Ali Yosra Z, Baharoon Salim, Al-Jahdali Hamdan, Validation of the Arabic version of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2014.04.004.
  19. Rezvani Mohammad, Zamani Babak, Fereshtehnejad Seyed-Mohammad. Factors Affecting the Efficacy of Pramipexole in Patients with Restless Legs Syndrome. Acta Medica Iranica. 2013; 51:6:377385.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Allen RP, Kushida CA, Atkinson MJ. Factor analysis of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group's scale for restless legs severity. Sleep Med. 2003; 4::133135.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. BaHammam A, Al-shahrani K, Al-zahrani S, Al-shammari A, Al-amri N, Sharif M. The prevalence of restless legs syndrome in adult Saudis attending primary health care. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2011; 33::102106.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Bakr IM, Nahla Fawzy Abou El Ezz , Abd Elaziz KM, Khater MS, Fahim HI. Prevalence of insomnia in elderly living in geriatric homes in Cairo. The Egyptian Journal of Community Medicine. 2011; 29:2.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Stranges Saverio, Tigbe William, Francesc Xavier Gómez-Olivé , Thorogood Margaret, Kandala Ngianga-Bakwin. Sleep Problems: An Emerging Global Epidemic? Findings From the INDEPTH WHO-SAGE Study Among More Than 40,000 Older Adults From 8 Countries Across Africa and Asia. Sleep. 2012; 35::11731181.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Smith Simon S, Oei Tian PS, Douglas James A, Brown Ian, Jorgensen Greg, Andrews Jonathan. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. Sleep Medicine. 2008; 9::739744.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Guadagnoli E, Velicer W. Relation of sample size to the stability of component patterns. Psychological Bulletin. 1988; 103::265275.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. MacCallum RC, Widaman KF, Zhang S, Hong S. Sample size in factor analysis. Psychological Methods. 1999; 4:1:8499.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. MacCallum RC, Widaman KF, Preacher KJ, Hong S. Sample size in factor analysis: The role of model error. Multivariate Behavioral Research. 2001; 36::611637.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.5339/qmj.2014.20
Loading
/content/journals/10.5339/qmj.2014.20
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplements

Supplementary File 1

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): daytime sleepiness , insomnia , restless legs syndrome , sleep disorders and Sudan
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error