Volume 2015, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 2311-8148
  • EISSN:



The events of Black September were a turning point in the development of Jordanian identity. As a result of the attempt on King Hussein's life on 1st September 1970 and the subsequent bloody civil war that played out between the Palestinian Resistance Movements that had acted as a “state within a state” inside Jordan, the Hashemite government expelled from the country the Palestinian Liberation Organization and other Fedayeen groups that comprised the Palestinian Resistance Movements. A second consequence of the war was the increased distrust of Palestinians and the crystallization of a distinct Jordanian identity as a reaction to the developing Palestinian identity. After a brief overview of the events leading up to Black September and the war itself, this paper describes the period of “Jordanization” that the government, the military, and the public sector experienced under Prime Minister Wasfi al-Tall. It then discusses the expanding societal divisions of the period immediately following, during which the state restructured itself at the expense of the Jordanians of Palestinian origin. Finally, the paper discusses social manifestations that resulted from the government's construction of a Jordanian national identity, such as the linguistic assimilation of Palestinian males, and the use of the Kafiyyeh to denote ethnic identity and political stances.


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  • Article Type: Research Article
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