1887
Volume 2021, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 2220-2749
  • EISSN:

Abstract

Worldwide, office employees have experienced two novel phenomena during the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown: working from home and reductions in their salaries. These phenomena have majorly impacted the lives of individuals as well as their families. The present study aims to measure the perceived stress levels among employees during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in Pakistan.

A cross-sectional approach was used to collect data from a sample of 385 employees working in three different IT-oriented private organizations. A semi-structured, Likert-scale questionnaire was used, containing the 10-item inventory from the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). A sociodemographic profile, working parameters, and frequency of PSS inventory were presented in the descriptive analysis. Binary logistic regression analysis was made to compare the stress levels of the two groups resulting from their workloads and reductions in salary.

An elevated perceived stress level (50.9%) was observed among the employees, showing a significant relationship with salary reduction and home work engagement (p<0.005). A strong negative correlation was observed (-0.860) for the salary reduction with PSS.

Working from home and reductions in salary caused increased perceived stress levels of the employees working in private organizations. Salary reductions proved to be a strong stressor, causing economic disruption and inability to cope with financial burdens during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.5339/avi.2021.7
2021-09-10
2021-10-25
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/avi/2021/2/avi.2021.7.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.5339/avi.2021.7&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Cooke JE, Eirich R, Racine N, Madigan S, . Prevalence of posttraumatic and general psychological stress during COVID-19: A rapid review and meta-analysis. Vol. 292, Psychiatry research. 2020. p. 113347.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Giusti EM, Pedroli E, D’Aniello GE, Stramba Badiale C, Pietrabissa G, Manna C, et al. The Psychological Impact of the COVID-19 Outbreak on Health Professionals: A Cross-Sectional Study. Front Psychol. 2020;11:1684.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Shanahan L, Steinhoff A, Bechtiger L, Murray AL, Nivette A, Hepp U, et al, . Emotional distress in young adults during the COVID-19 pandemic: evidence of risk and resilience from a longitudinal cohort study. Psychol Med. 2020Jun;1–10.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Al Omari O, Al Sabei S, Al Rawajfah O, Abu Sharour L, Aljohani K, Alomari K, et al. Prevalence and Predictors of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress among Youth at the Time of COVID-19: An Online Cross-Sectional Multicountry Study. Depress Res Treat. 2020;2020(October).
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Lecic-Tosevski D, Vukovic O, Stepanovic J. Stress and personality. Psychiatrike. 2011; 22:(4):290–7.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. FinkG. Stress: Definition and history. Encycl Neurosci. 2009;(October):549–55.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Brown SM, Doom JR, Lechuga-Peña S, Watamura SE, Koppels T. Stress and parenting during the global COVID-19 pandemic. Child Abuse Negl. 2020 Dec; 110:(Pt 2):104699.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Liu S, Lithopoulos A, Zhang C Q, Garcia-Barrera MA, Rhodes RE. Personality and perceived stress during COVID-19 pandemic: Testing the mediating role of perceived threat and efficacy. Pers Individ Dif. 2021 Jan;168:110351.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Muzik M, McGinnis EW, Bocknek E, Morelen D, Rosenblum KL, Liberzon I, et al, . PTSD SYMPTOMS ACROSS PREGNANCY AND EARLY POSTPARTUM AMONG WOMEN WITH LIFETIME PTSD DIAGNOSIS. Depress Anxiety. 2016 Jul; 33:(7):584–91.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Dusselier L, Dunn B, Wang Y, Shelley MC, Whalen DF. Personal, health, academic, and environmental predictors of stress for residence hall students. J Am Coll Health. 2005; 54:(1):15–24.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. COLLINGS JA, MURRAY PJ, . Predictors of Stress Amongst Social Workers: An Empirical Study. Br J Soc Work [Internet]. 1996 Jun 1; 26:(3):375–87. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.bjsw.a011101.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Padilla AM, Wagatsuma Y, Lindholm KJ, . Acculturation and personality as predictors of stress in Japanese and Japanese-Americans. J Soc Psychol. 1985 Jun; 125:(3):295–305.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Schaufeli WB, Martínez IM, Pinto AM, Salanova M, Bakker AB. Burnout and Engagement in University Students: A Cross-National Study. J Cross Cult Psychol [Internet]. 2002; 33:(5):464–81. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022102033005003.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Cohen S. Perceived stress in a probability sample of the United States. In: The social psychology of health. Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Sage Publications, Inc; 1988. p. 31–67. (The Claremont Symposium on Applied Social Psychology.).
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Baik SH, Fox RS, Mills SD, Roesch SC, Sadler GR, Klonoff EA, et al, . Reliability and validity of the Perceived Stress Scale-10 in Hispanic Americans with English or Spanish language preference. J Health Psychol. 2019 Apr; 24:(5):628–39.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Review C, Communication S, Principles G, . World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. J Am Coll Dent. 2014; 81:(3):14–8.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Shevlin M, McBride O, Murphy J, Miller JG, Hartman TK, Levita L, et al, . Anxiety, depression, traumatic stress and COVID-19-related anxiety in the UK general population during the COVID-19 pandemic. BJPsych open. 2020Oct; 6:(6):e125.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Pieh C, Budimir S, Probst T, . The effect of age, gender, income, work, and physical activity on mental health during coronavirus disease (COVID-19) lockdown in Austria. J Psychosom Res. 2020 Sep; 136::110186.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Felstead A, Jewson N, Phizacklea A, Walters S, . Opportunity to Work at Home in the Context of Work-Life Balance. Hum Resour Manag J. 2006 Aug 24;:12:54–76.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Roper K, Kim J, . Successful distributed work arrangements: a developmental approach. J Facil Manag. 2007 May 8;:5:103–14.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.5339/avi.2021.7
Loading
/content/journals/10.5339/avi.2021.7
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error