The function of the headmaster changed over time. Up until the seventies of the previous century, the main job of a headmaster has been thought of as management of the school building & monitoring the discipline of students. However later, & with the emerging research on the Effective School, it appeared that the functions of the school principal are directly related to improving student learning and academic achievement. Considering that the school principal is not just an administrative manager, but is basically an instructional leader who is interested in education for all students, and school leadership towards a high level of academic achievement, where all students become successful learners, and all teachers participate in their students’ learning. (Gettys, 2007) Instructional leadership falls under the broader umbrella of the principal leadership, & the literature on the effective school indicates that the fundamental difference between the most & least effective of managers is the active integration in the curriculum as well as the educational life in school (Marks & Printy, 2003). In other words, the most effective managers engage in educational leadership behaviors to improve student learning, which assumes that the school principal plays a leading role in the management of academic program, integrates in the educational program, sets high expectations for education, & establishes a program of periodic assessment for all students. (Prestine & Nelson, 2005) The aim of this research is to provide a set of proposed actions for the development of the role of the school principal in educational leadership to improve student learning in the Arab Republic of Egypt and the Sultanate of Oman; & in that framework, the research compares the Egyptian sample to the sample of Oman with respect to the level at which school principals practice educational leadership conduct. It also examines the impact of some of the demographic variables on these practices (type variables, experience, and qualification). The research uses a descriptive approach, aided by a questionnaire to assess the extent of school principals’ practices of educational leadership conduct from the point of view of a sample of primary school teachers in Egypt and Oman. The subject of research can be formulated based on the following questions: 1. To what extent do school administrators in Egypt and Oman practice educational leadership conduct? 2. Are there significant differences between the Egyptian and Omani samples in estimating the level at which school principals practice educational leadership conduct? 3. Is there an effect of demographic variables (gender, experience, qualification) on the exercise of the principals of educational leadership behaviors? 4. What are the difficulties the school principals face as leaders of education in Egypt and Oman? 5. What are the proposed measures to develop the role of the school principal as a leader of education in Egypt and Oman? Keywords: educational leadership, the role of the school principal, improving student learning References - Gettys, S. G. (2007). The role of mentoring in developing beginning principals’ instructional leadership skills. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. The University of Missouri-Columbia. - Marks, H. M. & Printy, S. M. (2003). Principal leadership and school performance: An integration of transformational and instructional leadership. Educational Administration Quarterly, vol.39. - Prestine, N. A. and Nelson B. S. (2005). How can educational leaders support and promote teaching and learning? In W. A. Firestone, & C. Riehl, (Eds,). A new agenda for research in educational leadership. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University.


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  • Received: 30 April 2015
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