1887
Volume 2015, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 2305-7823
  • EISSN:

Abstract

The Copenhagen City Heart Study, also known as “Østerbroundersøgelsen”, is a large prospective cardio-vascular population study of 20,000 women and men that was launched in 1975 by Dr Peter Schnohr and Dr Gorm Jensen together with statistician Jørgen Nyboe and Prof. A. Tybjærg Hansen. The original purpose of the study was to focus on prevention of coronary heart disease and stroke. During the years many other aspects have been added to the study: pulmonary diseases, heart failure, arrhythmia, alcohol, arthrosis, eye diseases, allergy, epilepsia, dementia, stress, vital exhaustion, social network, sleep-apnoe, ageing and genetics. In this review we highlight unique aspects of the Copenhagen City Heat Study (CCHS) and its outcome in investigations of clinical and molecular aspects of health and disease in the regional and global population. To increase the impact of population studies with a focus on risk and prevention of cardiovascular and related diseases and to maximize the likelihood of identifying disease causes and effective therapeutics, lessons learned from past research should be applied to the design, implementation and interpretation of future studies.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.5339/gcsp.2015.33
2015-10-09
2020-11-30
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/gcsp/2015/3/gcsp.2015.33.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.5339/gcsp.2015.33&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Epidemiology of chest pain and angina pectoris, with special reference to treatment needs. In: Jensen G, ed. Acta Med Scand; suppl 682. Thesis 1984.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Appleyard M, Hansen AT, Schnohr P, Jensen G, Nyboe J, The Copenhagen City Heart Study . Øster- broundersøgelsen. A book of tables with data from the first examination (1976–78) and a five year follow-up (1981–83). Scand J Soc Med. 1989; 170:suppl 41:1160.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Schnohr P, Jensen G, Lange P, Scharling H, Appleyard M. Tables with data from the third examination 1991–94. Eur Heart J. 2001; 3:suppl H.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Schnohr P. Physical activity in leisure time: impact on mortality. Risks and benefits. Dan Med Bull. 2009; 56:1:4071, Review.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Rose GA, Blackburn H. Cardiovascular survey methods. Geneva: Wld Health Org Monogr Ser 56 1968.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Johnson JF. Adult Physical Fitness: A Program for Men and Women Prepared by the President's Council on Physical Fitness. Washington, DC: President's Council on Physical Fitness 1965;:64.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Pate RR, Pratt M, Blair SN, Haskell WL, Macera CA, Bouchard C, Buchner D, Ettinger W, Heath GW, King AC, Kriska A, Leon AS, Marcus BH, Morris J, Paffenbarger RS, Patrick K, Pollock ML, Rippe JM, Sallis JF, Wilmore JH. Physical activity and public health. A recommendation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine. JAMA. 1995; 273:402–7:5.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Haskell WL, Lee IM, Pate RR, Powell KE, Blair SN, Franklin BA, Macera CA, Heath GW, Thompson PD, Bauman A. Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2007; 116::10811093.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 2008;:176.
  10. Schnohr P, Scharling H, Jensen JS. Intensity versus duration of walking, impact on mortality: the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2007; 14:72–8:15.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Schnohr P, Marott JL, Jensen JS, Jensen GB. Intensity versus duration of cycling, impact on all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality: the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2012; 19::7380.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Schnohr P, Marott JL, Lange P, Jensen GB. Longevity in male and female joggers: the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2013; 177::683689.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Schnohr P, O'Keefe JH, Marott JL, Lange P, Jensen GB. Dose of jogging and long-term mortality: the Copenhagen City Heart Study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015; 65:5:411419, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2014.11.023. .
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Ector J, Ganame J, van der Merwe N, Adriaenssens B, Pison L, Willems R, Gewillig M, Heidbüchel H. Reduced right ventricular ejection fraction in endurance athletes presenting with ventricular arrhythmias: a quantitative angiographic assessment. Eur Heart J Suppl. 2007; 28::345353.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. O'Keefe JH, Patil HR, Lavie CJ, Magalski A, Vogel RA, McCullough PA. Potential adverse cardiovascular effects from excessive endurance exercise. Mayo Clin Proc. 2012; 87::587595.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Bhella PS, Hastings JL, Fujimoto N, Shibata S, Carrick-Ranson G, Palmer MD, Boyd KN, Adams-Huet B, Levine BD. Impact of lifelong exercise dose on left ventricular compliance and distensibility. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014; 64::12571266.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Sørensen SP, Boysen G, Jensen G, Schnohr P. Prevalence of stroke in a district of Copenhagen the copenhagen city heart study. Acta Neurol Scand. Jul; 1982; 66:1:6881.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Lange P, Groth S, Nyboe J, Appleyard M, Mortensen J, Jensen G, Schnohr P. Chronic obstructive lung disease in Copenhagen: cross-sectional epidemiological aspects. J Intern Med. Jul; 1989; 226:1:2532.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Lange P, Groth S, Kastrup J, Mortensen J, Appleyard M, Nyboe J, Jensen G, Schnohr P. Diabetes mellitus, plasma glucose and lung function in a cross-sectional population study. Eur Respir J. Jan; 1989; 2:1:1419.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Nyboe J, Jensen G, Appleyard M, Schnohr P. Risk factors for acute myocardial infarction in Copenhagen I: Hereditary, educational and socioeconomic factors. Copenhagen City Heart Study. Eur Heart J. 1989; 10:10:910916, Stroke, 1994 Apr; 25(4):802-7.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Lindenstrøm E, Boysen G. Nyboe Lifestyle factors and risk of cerebrovascular disease in women. The Copenhagen City Heart Study. Scand J Clin Lab Invest Suppl. 1995; 220::5776.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Friberg J, Scharling H, Gadsbøll N, Jensen GB. Sex-specific increase in the prevalence of atrial fibrillation (The Copenhagen City Heart Study). Am J Cardiol. 2003; 92:12:14191423.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Truelsen T, Lindenstrøm E, Boysen G. Comparison of probability of stroke between the Copenhagen City Heart Study and the Framingham Study. Stroke. 1993; 24:10:14681472.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Nordestgaard BG, Agerholm-Larsen B, Wittrup HH, Tybjaerg-Hansen A. A prospective cardiovascular population study used in genetic epidemiology. The Copenhagen City Heart Study. Circulation. 1997; 95:10:23582367.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Agerholm-Larsen B, Nordestgaard BG, Steffensen R, Sørensen TI, Jensen G, Tybjaerg-Hansen A. ACE gene polymorphism: ischemic heart disease and longevity in 10,150 individuals. A case-referent and retrospective cohort study based on the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Circulation. 2000; 102:18:21972203.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Agerholm-Larsen B, Tybjaerg-Hansen A, Schnohr P, Steffensen R, Nordestgaard BG. Common cholesteryl ester transfer protein mutations, decreased HDL cholesterol, and possible decreased risk of ischemic heart disease: The Copenhagen City Heart Study. Ann Intern Med. 2001; 134:10:941954.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Sethi AA, Tybjaerg-Hansen A, Grønholdt ML, Steffensen R, Schnohr P, Nordestgaard BG. Angiotensinogen mutations and risk for ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, and ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Six case-control studies from the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Lakartidningen. 2002; 99:21:23922393.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Høyer AP, Gerdes AM, Jørgensen T, Rank F, Hartvig HB. Organochlorines, p53 mutations in relation to breast cancer risk and survival. A Danish cohort-nested case-controls study. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2002; 71:1:5965.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Juul K, Tybjaerg-Hansen A, Steffensen R, Kofoed S, Jensen G, Nordestgaard BG, Factor V. Leiden: The Copenhagen City Heart Study and 2 meta-analyses. Blood. 2002; 100:1:310.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Kofoed SC, Wittrup HH, Sillesen H, Nordestgaard BG. Fibrinogen predicts ischaemic stroke and advanced atherosclerosis but not echolucent, rupture-prone carotid plaques: the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Eur Heart J. Mar; 2003; 24:6:567576.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Mukamal KJ, Tolstrup JS, Friberg J, Grønbaek M, Jensen G. Fibrinogen and albumin levels and risk of atrial fibrillation in men and women (the CopenhagenCity Heart Study). Am J Cardiol. 2006; 98:1:7581.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Bojesen SE, Tybjaerg-Hansen A, Nordestgaard BG. Integrin beta3 Leu33Pro homozygosity and risk of cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003; 95:15:11501157.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Juul K, Tybjaerg-Hansen A, Marklund S, Heegaard NH, Steffensen R, Sillesen H, Jensen G, Nordestgaard BG. Genetically reduced antioxidative protection and increased ischemic heart disease risk: The Copenhagen City Heart Study. Circulation. 2004; 109:1:5965, Epub 2003 Dec 8.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Frikke-Schmidt R, Nordestgaard BG, Schnohr P, Tybjaerg-Hansen A. Single nucleotide polymorphism in the low-density lipoprotein receptor is associated with a threefold risk of stroke. A case-control and prospective study. Eur Heart J. 2004; 25:11:943951.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Stene MC, Frikke-Schmidt R, Nordestgaard BG, Steffensen R, Schnohr P, Tybjaerg-Hansen A. Zink Finger Protein 202: a new candidate gene for ischemic heart disease: The Copenhagen CityHeart Study. Atherosclerosis. 2006; 188:1:4350, Epub 2005 Nov 14.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Truelsen T, Gronbaek M, Schnohr P, Boysen G. Intake of beer, wine, and spirits and risk of stroke: the copenhagen city heart study. Stroke. 1998; 29:12:24672472.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Tolstrup JS, Grønbaek M, Tybjaerg-Hansen A, Nordestgaard BG. Alcohol intake, alcohol dehydrogenase genotypes, and liver damage and disease in the Danish general population. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009; 104:9:182188, doi: 101038/ajg2009370.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Thomsen M, Ingebrigtsen TS, Marott JL, Dahl M, Lange P, Vestbo J, Nordestgaard BG. Inflammatory biomarkers and exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. JAMA. 2013; 309:22:23532361, doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.5732.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Kamstrup PR, Tybjærg-Hansen A, Nordestgaard BG. Elevated lipoprotein(a) and risk of aortic valve stenosis in the general population. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014; 63:5:470477, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2013.09.038. Epub 2013 Oct 23.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Kamstrup PR, Benn M, Tybjaerg-Hansen A, Nordestgaard BG. Extreme lipoprotein(a) levels and risk of myocardial infarction in the general population: the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Circulation. 2008; 117:2:176184.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Kozlitina J, Smagris E, Stender S, Nordestgaard BG, Zhou HH, Tybjærg-Hansen A, Vogt TF, Hobbs HH, Cohen JC. Exome-wide association study identifies a TM6SF2 variant that confers susceptibility to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Nat Genet. Apr; 2014; 46:4:352356, doi: 10.1038/ng.2901. Epub 2014 Feb 16.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Marti-Soler H, Gubelmann C, Aeschbacher S, Alves L, Bobak M, Bongard V, Clays E, deGaetano G, DiCastelnuovo A, Elosua R, Ferrieres J, Guessous I, Igland J, Jørgensen T, Nikitin Y, O'Doherty MG, Palmieri L, Ramos R, Simons J, Sulo G, Vanuzzo D, Vila J, Barros H, Borglykke A, Conen D, De Bacquer D, Donfrancesco C, Gaspoz JM, Giampaoli S, Giles GG, Iacoviello L, Kee F, Kubinova R, Malyutina S, Marrugat J, Prescott E, Ruidavets JB, Scragg R, Simons LA, Tamosiunas A, Tell GS, Vollenweider P, Marques-Vidal P. Seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors: an analysis including over 230 000 participants in 15 countries. Heart. 2014; 100:19:15171523, Epub 2014 May 30.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Jørgensen AB, Frikke-Schmidt R, Nordestgaard BG, Tybjærg-Hansen A. Loss-of-function mutations in APOC3 and risk of ischemic vascular disease. N Engl J Med. 2014; 371:1:3241, doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1308027. Epub 2014 Jun 18.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Lauridsen BK, Stender S, Frikke-Schmidt R, Nordestgaard BG, Tybjærg-Hansen A. Genetic variation in the cholesterol transporter NPC1L1, ischaemic vascular disease, and gallstone disease. Eur Heart J. 2015; pii::ehv108. [Epub ahead of print].
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Al Suwaidi J. The Dallas Heart Study using the probability sample technique for ethnicity and cardiovascular health differences. Glob Cardiol Sci Pract. 2015; 2015::1, doi: 10.5339/gcsp.2015.1. .
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Freitag DF, Butterworth AS, Willeit P, Howson JM, Burgess S, Kaptoge S, Young R, Ho WK, Wood AM, Sweeting M, Spackman S, Staley JR, Ramond A, Harshfield E, Nielsen SF, Grande P, Lange LA, Bown MJ, Jones GT, Scott RA, Bevan S, Porcu E, Thorleifsson G, Zeng L, Kessler T, Do R, Nikpay M, Zhang W, Hopewell JC, Kleber M, Delgado GE, Nelson CP, Goel A, Bis JC, Dehghan A, Ligthart S, Smith AV, Qu L, van't Hof FN, deBakker PI, Baas AF, van Rij A, Tromp G, Kuivaniemi H, Ritchie MD, Verma SS, Crawford DC, Malinowski J, deAndrade M, Kullo IJ, Peissig PL, McCarty CA, Böttinger EP, Gottesman O, Crosslin DR, Carrell DS, Rasmussen-Torvik LJ, Pacheco JA, Huang J, Timpson NJ, Kettunen J, Ala-Korpela M, Mitchell GF, Parsa A, Wilkinson IB, Gorski M, Li Y, Franceschini N, Keller MF, Ganesh SK, Langefeld CD, Bruijn L, Brown MA, Evans DM, Baltic S, Ferreira MA, Baurecht H, Weidinger S, Franke A, Lubitz SA, Müller-Nurasyid M, Felix JF, Smith NL, Sudman M, Thompson SD, Zeggini E, Panoutsopoulou K, Nalls MA, Singleton A, Polychronakos C, Bradfield JP, Hakonarson H, Easton DF, Thompson D, Tomlinson IP, Dunlop M, Hemminki K, Morgan G, Eisen T, Goldschmidt H, Allan JM, Henrion M, Whiffin N, Wang Y, Chubb D, Houlston RS, Iles MM, Bishop DT, Law MH, Hayward NK, Luo Y, Nejentsev S, Barbalic M, Crossman D, Sanna S, Soranzo N, Markus HS, Wareham NJ, Rader DJ, Reilly M, Assimes T, Harris TB, Hofman A, Franco OH, Gudnason V, Tracy R, Psaty BM, Farrall M, Watkins H, Hall AS, Samani NJ, März W, Clarke R, Collins R, Kooner JS, Chambers JC, Kathiresan S, McPherson R, Erdmann J, Kastrati A, Schunkert H, Stefánsson K, Walston JD, Tybjærg-Hansen A, Alam DS, Majumder AA, DiAngelantonio E, Chowdhury R, Nordestgaard BG, Saleheen D, Thompson SG, Danesh J. Interleukin 1 Genetics Consortium. Cardiometabolic effects of genetic upregulation of the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist: a Mendelian randomisation analysis. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. Apr; 2015; 3:4:243253.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Al Suwaidi J. Acute coronary syndrome in the Middle East: The importance of registries for quality assessment and plans for improvement. Glob Cardiol Sci Pract. 2013; 2013:1:24.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Sulaiman K, Panduranga P, Al-Zakwani I, Alsheikh-Ali AA, AlHabib KF, Al-Suwaidi J, Al-Mahmeed W, AlFaleh H, Elasfar A, Al-Motarreb A, Ridha M, Bulbanat B, Al-Jarallah M, Bazargani N, Asaad N, Amin H. Clinical characteristics, management, and outcomes of acute heart failure patients: observations from the Gulf acute heart failure registry (Gulf CARE). Eur J Heart Fail. Apr; 2015; 17:4:374384.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Gehani A, Al Suwaidi J, Arafa S, Tamimi O, Alqahtani A, Al-Nabti A, Arabi A, Aboughazala T, Bonow RO, Yacoub M. Primary coronary angioplasty for ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction in Qatar: First nationwide program. Glob Cardiol Sci Pract. 2013; 2012:2:4355.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.5339/gcsp.2015.33
Loading
/content/journals/10.5339/gcsp.2015.33
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error