Abstract Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of 5%, 3%, and 0.9% saline solution for treating acute bronchiolitis in the prehospital setting. Study design: This was a double-blind trial including consecutive infants aged <18 months treated in an urban urgent care setting. A total of 165 patients were randomized to receive nebulized 5%, 3%, or 0.9% (normal) saline with epinephrine every 4 hours. The primary efficacy outcome was bronchiolitis severity score improvement at 48 hours (c2 analysis). Scores and oxygen saturation immediately before and after each treatment were recorded to assess safety. Results: A total of 187 previously healthy infants (median age, 3.1 months) diagnosed with bronchiolitis were enrolled. Positivity for respiratory syncytial virus was similar in the 3 treatment groups (mean, 56%). At 48 hours, the mean severity score for the 5% saline group was 3.69 _ 1.09, and that for the 0.9% saline group was 4.12 _ 1.11 (P = .04; difference, 0.43, 95% confidence interval for the difference, 0.02-0.88). The mean severity score for the 3% saline group was intermediate at 4.00 _ 1.22. Revisit rates after discharge were similar in the 3 treatment groups. No adverse reactions or other safety concerns were identified. Conclusions: Nebulization with 5% hypertonic saline is safe, can be widely generalizable, and may be superior to current treatment for early outpatient treatment of bronchiolitis.


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