1887
Volume 2011, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0253-8253
  • E-ISSN: 2227-0426

Abstract

Diabetes is a public health problem and optimal glycemic control requires diligent daily self-management to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes and its complications. By means of a carefully designed questionnaire, 215 patients with Type 2 diabetes who were admitted to the Emergency Department at Hamad General Hospital during the period from 1 May 2008 to 31 August 2008 were selected randomly and interviewed to determine their attitudes and behaviors influencing effective glycemic control and the extent to which they were helped by education and advice from care providers. The mean ± SD of both the total diabetes attitudes with subscales, and the self-care behaviors were measured in addition to the mean ± SD of both hemoglobin A1 c, and the number of admissions to the emergency department over the preceding six months. Participants reported the highest performance following a specific diet which had the highest significant negative correlation (r = -0.181, p = 0.009) with hemoglobin A1c as compared with the other self-care behaviors. The study emphasized the importance of improving the attitude of Type∼2 diabetics and their self-care behaviors because of the association with Emergency Department Admission and Glycemic Control. An appropriate educational approach and follow-up taking into account individual patient characteristics, needs to be implemented.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.5339/qmj.2011.1.6
2011-06-01
2019-12-05
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. World Health Organization. Prevalence of diabetes worldwide http://www.who.int/diabetes/facts/world_figures/en/ .
  2. Nolan JJ. What is Type-2 diabetes? Medicine. 2002; 30:1:68.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Williams G, Pickup JC. Handbook of Diabetes. 2nd Ed. UK: Blackwell Publishing 2002.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group. In tensive blood-glucose con troll with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). Lancet. 1998; 352::837853.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group. Effect of in tensive blood glucose control with metformin on complications in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 34). Lancet. 1998; 352::854865.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Van den Arend IJM, Stolk RP, Ruttent GEHM, Schrijvers GJP. Education integrated into structured general practice care for type 2 diabetic patients'results in sustained improvement of disease knowledge and self-care. Diabetic Med. 2000; 17::190197.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Tang TS, Gillard ML, Funnell MM, Nwankwo R, Parker E, Spurlock D. Developing a new generation of ongoing diabetes self-management support interventions. Diabetes Educ. 2005; 31::9197.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. ADA. Standards of medical care in diabetes-2009. Diabetes Care. 2009; 32:Suppl 1:S13S61.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Hawthorne K, Tomlinson S. One-to-one teaching with picturesflashcard health education for British Asians with diabetes. Br J Gen Pract. 1997; 47:418:301304.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Norris SL, Lau J, Smith SJ, Schmid CH. Engelgau MM: Self-management education for adults with type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis of the effect on glycemic control. Diabetes Care. 2002; 25::11591171.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Friedman MM. Transcultural family nursing: application to Latino and black families. J Pediatr Nurs. 1990; 5::214222.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Anderson RM, Herman WH, Davis JM, Friedman RP, Funnell MM, Neighbors HW. Barriers to improving diabetes care for black persons. Diabetes Care. 1997; 14::605609.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Fitzgerald JT, Gruppen LD, Anderson RM. The Influence of treatment modality and ethnicity on attitudes in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2000; 23:3:313318.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Kartal A, Cagirgan MG, Jigh H, Gungor Y, Karakus N, Glen M. Type 2 diabetic patients'attitudes about care and treatment and factors affecting the attitudes. TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7:3:223230.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Anderson RM, Funnell MM, Butler PM, Arnold MS, Fitzgerald JT, Feste CC. Patient empowerment: Results of a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care. 1995; 18:7:943949.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Glasgow RE, Funnell MM, Bonomi AE, Davis C, Beckham V, Wagner EH. Self-management aspects of the improving chronic illness care breakthrough series: implementation with diabetes and heart failure teams. Ann Behav Med. 2002; 24::8087.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Peyrot M, Rubin RR. Behavioral and psychosocial interventions in diabetes. A conceptual review. Diabetes Care. 2007; 30:10:24332440.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. McNabb WL. Adherence in diabetes: can we define it and can we measure it? Diabetes Care. 1997; 20::215218.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Cox DJ, Gonder-Frederick L. Major developmen ts in behavioral diabetes research. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1992; 60::628638.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. The Michigan Diabetes Research and Training Center http://www.med.umich.edu/mdrtc/profs/survey.html .
  21. Anderson RM, Fitzgerald JT, Funnell MM, Gruppen LD. The third version of the diabetes attitude scale. Diabetes Care. 1998; 21:9:14031407.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Toobert DJ, Hampson SE, Glasgow RE. The Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Measure: Results from 7 studies and a revised scale. Diabetes Care. 2000; 23:7:943950.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Wallace TM, Matthews DR. Poor glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes: conspiracy of disease, suboptimal therapy and attitude. Quart J Med. 2000; 93::6974.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Matthews DR. The natural history of diabetes-related complications: the UKPDS experience. Diabetes Obesity Metab. 1999; 2::S713.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Von Goeler SD, Rosa ICM, Ockene KJ, Scavron J, De Torrijos F. Self-Management of Type 2 Diabetes: A Survey of low-income urban Puerto Ricans. Diabetes Educ. 2003; 29:4:663672.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Baradaran H, Knill-Jones R. Assessing the knowledge, attitudes and understanding of type 2 diabetes amongst ethnic groups in Glasgow, Scotland. Practical Diabetes International. 2004; 21:4:143148.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Al Nuaimi S, Al Chetachi W. Diabetes-related knowledge of Type-2 diabetics attending the Emergency Department at Hamad General Hospital. Journal of Emergency Medicine, Trauma & Acute Care. 2008; 8:2:8996.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Shah VN, Kamdar PK, Shah NA. Assessing the knowledge, attitudes and practice of type 2 diabetes among patients ofSaurashtra region, Gujarat. Int. J. Diab. Dev. Countries. 2009; 29:3:118122.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Hawthorne K. Asian diabetics attending a British hospital clinic: A pilot study to evaluate their care. Br J Gen Pract. 1990; 40::243247.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Peyrot M, Rubin RR, Lauritzen T, Snoek FJ, Matthews DR, Skovlund SE. Psychosocial problems and barriers to improved diabetes management: Results of the Cross-National Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs (DAWN) Study. Diabet Med. 2005; 22::13791385.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. De Berardis G, Pellegrini F, Franciosi M, Belfiglio M, Di Nardo B, Greenfield S, et al., QuED Study. Physician attitudes toward foot care education and foot examination and their correlation with patient practice. Diabetes Care. 2004; 27::286287.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Melaneon J, Oomen-Early J, del Rincon LM. Using the PEN-3 model to assess knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about diabetes Type 2 among Mexican American and Mexican Native men and women in North Texas. International Electronic Journal of Health Education. 2009; 12::203221.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Kapur A, Shishoo S, Ahuja MMS, Sen V, Mankame K. Diabetes care in India - patient's perceptions, attitudes and practices. Int. J. Diab. Dev. Countries. 1997; 17::514.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Gagliardino JJ, Gonzalez C, Caporale JE. The diabetes-related attitudes of health care professionals and persons with diabetes in Argentina. Pan Am J Public Health. 2007; 22:5:304307.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Clark M, Hampson SE. Comparison of patients'and healthcare professionals' beliefs about and attitudes towards type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Med. 2003; 20::152154.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Adham M, Froelicher ES, Batieha A, Ajlouni K. Glycaemic control and its associated factors in type 2 diabetic patients in Amman, Jordan. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2010; 16:7:732739.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Adibah H, Idris MN, Osman AH. Perception and behavior of diabetic patients and blood glucose maintenance. Int. J. Diab. Dev. Countries. 1998; 18::7174.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Daly JM, Hartz AJ, Xu Y, Levy BT, James PA, Merchant ML, et al., An assessment of attitudes, behaviors, and outcomes of patients with Type 2 diabetes. J Am Board Earn Med. 2009; 22::280290.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Bazargan M, Johnson KH, Stein JA. Emergency department utilization among Hispanic and African-American under-served patients with Type-2 diabetes. Ethn Dis. 2003; 13:3:369375.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Jorgensen WA, Polivka BJ, Lennie TA. Perceived adherence to prescribed or recommended standards of care among adults with diabetes. Diabetes Educ. 2002; 28:6:989998.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Schechter CB, Walker EA. Improving adherence to diabetes selfmanagement recommendations. Diabetes Spectrum. 2002; 15:3:170175.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Davidson J. Strategies for improving glycemic control: Effective use of glucose monitoring. AJM. 2005; 118:9:2732, Supple.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Karter AJ, Ackerson LM, Darbinian JA, D'Agostino RB, Ferrara A, Liu J. Self-monitoring of blood glucose levels and glycemic control: The Northern California Kaiser Permanente Diabetes registry. AJM. 2001; 111:1:19.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Jones H, Edwards L, Vailis TM, Ruggiero L, Rossi SR, Rossi JS, et al., Changes in diabetes self-care behaviors make a difference in glycemic control. Diabetes Care. 2003; 26:3:732736.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Barth R, Campbell L, Allen S, Jupp J, Chisholm D. Intensive education improves knowledge, compliance, and foot problems in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Med. 1991; 8::111117.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Ronnemaa T, Hamalainen H, Toikka T, Liukkonen I. Evaluation of the impact of podiatrist care in the primary prevention of foot problems in diabetic subjects. Diabetes Care. 1997; 20:12:18331837.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Tibbs TL, Haire-Joshu D. Avoiding high-risk behaviors: Smoking prevention and cessation. Diabetes Spectrum. 2002; 15:3:164169.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Haire-Joshu D, Glasgow RE, Tibbs TL. Smoking and diabetes (Technical Review). Diabetes Care. 1999; 22::18871898.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. American Diabetes Association. Smoking and diabetes (Position Statement). Diabetes Care. 2004; 27:Suppi 1:S74S75.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. FunnelI MM, Brown TL, Childs BP, Haas LB, Hosey GM, Jensen B, et al., National Standards for Diabetes Self-Management Education. Diabetes Care. 2009; 32::S87S94.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Dunn SM, Beeney U, Hoskins PL, Turtle JR. Knowledge and attitude change as predictors of metabolic improvement in diabetes education. Social Science & Medicine. 1990; 31:10:11351141.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Garcia R, Suarez R. Diabetes education in the elderly: a 5-year followup of an interactive approach. Patient Education and Counseling. 1996; 29:1:8797.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.5339/qmj.2011.1.6
Loading
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error