1887
Volume 2023, Issue 2
  • EISSN:

Abstract

African nations have experienced various environmental and anthropological changes, including climate change, natural disasters, food safety issues, and increased industrial waste. These changes have increased the risk of emerging endemic microorganisms and intensified the transmission and impact of existing endemic communicable diseases (ECDs). This paper reviews the literature on the repercussions of ECDs, such as malaria, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), tuberculosis (TB), and viral hepatitis diseases (VHD) in Africa. The narrative review involved an extensive search of published articles and grey literature on these selected ECDs in Africa between January 2000 and December 2022. Through case studies on malaria, NTDs, HIV/AIDS, TB, and VHD, the effects of these ECDs on public health, economic development, and social systems in Africa were demonstrated, as they continue to be major causes of morbidity and mortality in the African region. It was emphasized that underlying social and economic factors contribute to the vulnerabilities associated with these diseases. In conclusion, providing services through community care workers can improve families’ trust, awareness of social support, and recognition of domestic vulnerabilities.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.5339/qjph.2023.9
2024-02-02
2024-07-13
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/qjph/2023/2/qjph.2023.9.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.5339/qjph.2023.9&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Koua EL, Njingang JRN, Kimenyi JP, Williams GS, Okeibunor J, Oka S, et al. Trends in public health emergencies in the WHO African Region: an analysis of the past two decades public health events from 2001 to 2022. BMJ Global Health. 2023; 8:(10):e012015. doi: 10.1136/BMJGH-2023-012015.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Hammer CC, Brainard J, Hunter PR. Risk factors and risk factor cascades for communicable disease outbreaks in complex humanitarian emergencies: a qualitative systematic review. BMJ Global Health. 2018; 3:(4):e000647. doi: 10.1136/bmjgh-2017-000647.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Ludwig A, Zheng H, Vrbova L, Drebot MA, Iranpour M, Lindsay LR. >Increased risk of endemic mosquito-borne diseases in Canada due to climate change. Can Commun Dis Rep. 2019 Apr 4; 45:(4):91–97. doi: 10.14745/ccdr.v45i04a03.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Schneider MC, Tirado MC, Rereddy S, Dugas R, Borda MI, Peralta EA, et al. Natural disasters and communicable diseases in the Americas: contribution of veterinary public health. Vet Ital. 2012 Apr-Jun; 48:(2):193–218.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Kaluvu L, Asogwa OA, Marzà-Florensa A, Kyobutungi C, Levitt NS, Boateng D, et al. Multimorbidity of communicable and non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review. J Multimorb Comorb. 2022 Sep 1;12:26335565221112593. doi: 10.1177/26335565221112593.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Ogoina D, Onyemelukwe GC. The role of infections in the emergence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs): Compelling needs for novel strategies in the developing world. J Infect Public Health. 2009; 2:(1):14–29. doi: 10.1016/j.jiph.2009.02.001.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Nkengasong JN, Tessema SK. Africa Needs a New Public Health Order to Tackle Infectious Disease Threats. Cell. 2020 Oct 15; 183:(2):296–300. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2020.09.041.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Smith KM, Machalaba CC, Seifman R, Feferholtz Y, Karesh WB. Infectious disease and economics: The case for considering multisectoral impacts. One Health. 2019 Jan 9;:7:100080. doi: 10.1016/j.onehlt.2018.100080.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Devereux S, Kapingidza S. External Donors and Social Protection in Africa: A Case Study of Zimbabwe. In: Schmitt C, editor. From Colonialism to International Aid: External Actors and Social Protection in the Global South. Springer International Publishing; 2020. p. 273–302. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-38200-1_11.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Gori L, Mammana C, Manfredi P, Michetti E. Economic development with deadly communicable diseases and public prevention. J Public Econ Theor. 2022; 24:(5):912–943. doi: 10.1111/jpet.12560.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Makuwira J. Governing the ungovernable - donor agencies and the politics of development in Africa. Afr J Public Aff. 2017; 9:(5):23–34. doi: 10.10520/EJC-69ffa4178.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Bates M, Marais BJ, Zumla A. Tuberculosis Comorbidity with Communicable and Noncommunicable Diseases. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2015 Feb 6; 5:(11):a017889. doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a017889.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Golics CJ, Basra MK, Finlay AY, Salek S. The impact of disease on family members: a critical aspect of medical care. J R Soc Med. 2013 Oct; 106:(10):399–407. doi: 10.1177/0141076812472616.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Alonso S, Chaccour CJ, Elobolobo E, Nacima A, Candrinho B, Saifodine A, et al. The economic burden of malaria on households and the health system in a high transmission district of Mozambique. Malar J. 2019 Nov 11; 18:(1):360. doi: 10.1186/s12936-019-2995-4.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Embleton L, Logie CH, Ngure K, Nelson L, Kimbo L, Ayuku D, et al. Intersectional Stigma and Implementation of HIV Prevention and Treatment Services for Adolescents Living with and at Risk for HIV: Opportunities for Improvement in the HIV Continuum in Sub-Saharan Africa. AIDS Behav. 2023 May; 27:(Suppl 1):162–184. doi: 10.1007/s10461-022-03793-4.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Ma PHX, Chan ZCY, Loke AY. Self-Stigma Reduction Interventions for People Living with HIV/AIDS and Their Families: A Systematic Review. AIDS Behav. 2019 Mar; 23:(3):707–741. doi: 10.1007/s10461-018-2304-1.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Short SE, Goldberg RE. Children Living with HIV-Infected Adults: Estimates for 23 Countries in sub-Saharan Africa. PLoS One. 2015 Nov 17; 10:(11):e0142580. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0142580.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Weiss-Laxer NS, Crandall A, Hughes ME, Riley AW. Families as a Cornerstone in 21st Century Public Health: Recommendations for Research, Education, Policy, and Practice. Front Public Health. 2020 Sep 18;8:503. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.00503.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Wong EB, Olivier S, Gunda R, Koole O, Surujdeen A, Gareta D, et al. Convergence of infectious and non-communicable disease epidemics in rural South Africa: a cross-sectional, population-based multimorbidity study. Lancet Glob Health. 2021; 9:(7):e967–e976. doi: 10.1016/S2214-109X(21)00176-5.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. World Health Organization. World Malaria Report 2021 [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization; c2021 [cited 2023 Oct 1]. Available from: https://www.who.int/teams/global-malaria-programme/reports/world-malaria-report-2021.
  21. World Health Organization. Malaria [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization; c2023 [cited 2023 Oct 1]. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/malaria .
  22. Prosper O, Ruktanonchai N, Martcheva M. Assessing the role of spatial heterogeneity and human movement in malaria dynamics and control. J Theor Biol. 2012 Jun 21;303:1–14. doi: 10.1016/j.jtbi.2012.02.010.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Tessema S, Wesolowski A, Chen A, Murphy M, Wilheim J, Mupiri AR, et al. Using parasite genetic and human mobility data to infer local and cross-border malaria connectivity in Southern Africa. Elife. 2019 Apr 2;8:e43510. doi: 10.7554/eLife.43510.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Degarege A, Fennie K, Degarege D, Chennupati S, Madhivanan P. Improving socioeconomic status may reduce the burden of malaria in sub Saharan Africa: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2019 Jan 24; 14:(1):e0211205. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0211205.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Caminade C, Kovats S, Rocklov J, Tompkins AM, Morse AP, Colón-Gonzàlez FJ, et al. Impact of climate change on global malaria distribution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Mar 4; 111:(9):3286–91. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1302089111.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. RBM. RBM Roll Back Malaria [Internet]. [cited 2023 Oct 1]. Available from: https://endmalaria.org/ .
  27. Adeyemo AO, Aborode AT, Bello MA, Obianuju AF, Hasan MM, Kehinde DO, et al. Malaria vaccine: The lasting solution to malaria burden in Africa. Ann Med Surg (Lond). 2022 Jul;79:104031. doi: 10.1016/j.amsu.2022.104031 .
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Buckee C, Noor A, Sattenspiel L. Thinking clearly about social aspects of infectious disease transmission. Nature. 2021 Jul; 595:(7866):205–213. doi: 10.1038/s41586-021-03694-x.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Onwujekwe OE, Uzochukwu BS, Ezeoke OP. Socioeconomic inequalities in cost of seeking treatment for malaria in south-east Nigeria. Int J Med Health Dev. 2012; 15:(2):2–16.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Tusting LS, Rek JC, Arinaitwe E, Staedke SG, Kamya MR, Bottomley C, et al. Measuring Socioeconomic Inequalities in Relation to Malaria Risk: A Comparison of Metrics in Rural Uganda. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2016 Mar; 94:(3):650–8. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.15-0554.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Were V, Buff AM, Desai M, Kariuki S, Samuels A, Ter Kuile FO, et al. Socioeconomic health inequality in malaria indicators in rural western Kenya: evidence from a household malaria survey on burden and care-seeking behaviour. Malar J. 2018 Apr 16; 17:(1):166. doi: 10.1186/s12936-018-2319-0.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Hailu A, Lindtjørn B, Deressa W, Gari T, Loha E, Robberstad B. Economic burden of malaria and predictors of cost variability to rural households in south-central Ethiopia. PLoS One. 2017 Oct 11; 12:(10):e0185315. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0185315.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Tusting LS, Bottomley C, Gibson H, Kleinschmidt I, Tatem AJ, Lindsay SW, et al. Housing Improvements and Malaria Risk in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Multi-Country Analysis of Survey Data. PLoS Med. 2017 Feb 21; 14:(2):e1002234. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002234.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Tusting LS, Willey B, Lucas H, Thompson J, Kafy HT, Smith R, et al. Socioeconomic development as an intervention against malaria: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2013 Sep 14; 382:(9896):963–72. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60851-X.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Tusting LS, Gething PW, Gibson HS, Greenwood B, Knudsen J, Lindsay SW, et al. Housing and child health in sub-Saharan Africa: A cross-sectional analysis. PLoS Med. 2020 Mar 23; 17:(3):e1003055. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1003055.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. World Health Organization. Neglected Tropical Diseases [Internet]. World Health Organization. 2022. [cited 2023 Oct 1]. Available from: https://www.who.int/health-topics/neglected-tropical-diseases#tab=tab_1M .
  37. George NS, David SC, Nabiryo M, Sunday BA, Olanrewaju OF, Yangaza Y, et al. Addressing neglected tropical diseases in Africa: a health equity perspective. Glob Health Res Policy. 2023 Jul 25; 8:(1):30. doi: 10.1186/s41256-023-00314-1.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Hotez PJ, Kamath A. Neglected Tropical Diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa: Review of Their Prevalence, Distribution, and Disease Burden. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2009; 3:(8):e412. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000412.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Okoyo C, Campbell SJ, Williams K, Simiyu E, Owaga C, Mwandawiro C. Prevalence, intensity and associated risk factors of soil-transmitted helminth and schistosome infections in Kenya: Impact assessment after five rounds of mass drug administration in Kenya. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020 Oct 7; 14:(10):e0008604. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0008604.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. World Health Organization. Funding crisis threatens Africa’s fight against neglected tropical diseases [Internet]. 2023. [cited 2023 Oct 19]. Available from: https://www.afro.who.int/news/funding-crisis-threatens-africas-fight-against-neglected-tropical-diseases .
  41. Ochola EA, Karanja DMS, Elliott SJ. The impact of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) on health and well-being in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA): A case study of Kenya. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 Feb 11; 15:(2):e0009131. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0009131.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. WHO. (2017). Integrating neglected tropical diseases into global health and development: fourth WHO report on neglected tropical diseases.
  43. Quansah E, Sarpong E, Karikari TK. Disregard of neurological impairments associated with neglected tropical diseases in Africa. eNeurologicalSci. 2016;3:11–14. doi: 10.1016/j.ensci.2015.11.002.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Hotez PJ, Alvarado M, Basáñez MG, Bolliger I, Bourne R, Boussinesq M, et al. The global burden of disease study 2010: interpretation and implications for the neglected tropical diseases. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014 Jul 24; 8:(7):e2865. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002865.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Hotez PJ, Brindley PJ, Bethony JM, King CH, Pearce EJ, Jacobson J. Helminth infections: the great neglected tropical diseases. J Clin Invest. 2008 Apr; 118:(4):1311–21. doi: 10.1172/JCI34261.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Ministry of Health - Kenya (MOH-Kenya). The 2nd Kenya National Strategic Plan for Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases 2016-2020 [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2023 Oct 21]. Available from: https://espen.afro.who.int/system/files/content/resources/KENYA_NTD_Master_Plan_2016_2020.pdf .
  47. World Health Organization. Ending the neglect to attain the sustainable development goals: a sustainability framework for action against neglected tropical diseases 2021-2030. 2021.
  48. Pullan RL, Halliday KE, Oswald WE, Mcharo C, Beaumont E, Kepha S, et al. Effects, equity, and cost of school-based and community-wide treatment strategies for soil-transmitted helminths in Kenya: a cluster-randomised controlled trial. Lancet (London, England). 2019; 393:(10185):2039–50. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32591-1.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. World Health Organization. HIV/AIDS [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2023 Oct 19]. Available from: https://www.afro.who.int/health-topics/hivaids .
  50. Frank TD, Carter A, Jahagirdar D, Biehl MH, Douwes-Schultz D, Larson SL, et al. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and mortality of HIV, 1980-2017, and forecasts to 2030, for 195 countries and territories: a systematic analysis for the global burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors study 2017. Lancet HIV. 2019; 6:(12):e831–e859. doi: 10.1016/S2352-3018(19)30196-1.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Jones A, Cremin I, Abdullah F, Idoko J, Cherutich P, Kilonzo N, et al. Transformation of HIV from pandemic to low endemic levels: a public health approach to combination prevention. Lancet. 2014; 384:(9939):272–279. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62230-8.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Yegorov S, Joag V, Galiwango RM, Good SV, Okech B, Kaul R. Impact of Endemic Infections on HIV Susceptibility in Sub-Saharan Africa. Trop Dis Travel Med Vaccines. 2019 Nov 29; 5:(1):22. doi: 10.1186/s40794-019-0097-5.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Iwelunmor J, Airhihenbuwa CO, Okoror TA, Brown DC, BeLue R. Family systems and HIV/AIDS in South Africa. Int Q Community Health Educ. 2006–2007; 27:(4):321–35. doi: 10.2190/IQ.27.4.d.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Feinstein MJ, Bogorodskaya M, Bloomfield GS, Vedanthan R, Siedner MJ, Kwan GF, et al. Cardiovascular Complications of HIV in Endemic Countries. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2016 Nov; 18:(11):113. doi: 10.1007/s11886-016-0794-x.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Gowshall M, Taylor-Robinson SD. The increasing prevalence of non-communicable diseases in low-middle income countries: the view from Malawi. Int J Gen Med. 2018 Jun 28;:11:255-264. doi: 10.2147/IJGM.S157987.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Hanass-Hancock J, Regondi I, van Egeraat L, Nixon S. HIV-related disability in HIV hyper-endemic countries : a scoping review. World J AIDS. 2013;3:257–279. doi: 10.4236/wja.2013.3303430.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Casale M, Wild L, Cluver L, Kuo C. The relationship between social support and anxiety among caregivers of children in HIV-endemic South Africa. Psychol Health Med. 2014; 19:(4):490–503. doi: 10.1080/13548506.2013.832780.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Sawers L, Stillwaggon E. Understanding the Southern African ’anomaly’: poverty, endemic disease and HIV. Development and Change. 2010;14:195–224. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7660.2010.01639.x.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Burke M, Gong E, Jones K. Income Shocks and HIV in Africa. The Economic Journal. 2015; 125:(585):1157–1189. doi: 10.1111/ecoj.12149.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Dzomba A, Kim HY, Tomita A, Vandormael A, Govender K, Tanser F. Predictors of migration in an HIV hyper-endemic rural South African community: evidence from a population-based cohort (2005-2017). BMC Public Health. 2022 Jun 7; 22:(1):1141. doi: 10.1186/s12889-022-13526-w.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Miller CL, Bangsberg DR, Tuller DM, Senkungu J, Kawuma A, Frongillo EA, Weiser SD. Food insecurity and sexual risk in an HIV endemic community in Uganda. AIDS Behav. 2011 Oct; 15:(7):1512–9. doi: 10.1007/s10461-010-9693-0.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Kuo C, Reddy MK, Operario D, Cluver L, Stein DJ. Posttraumatic stress symptoms among adults caring for orphaned children in HIV-endemic South Africa. AIDS Behav. 2013 Jun; 17:(5):1755–63. doi: 10.1007/s10461-013-0461-9.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. AWARE-HIV/AIDS. Promising and Best Practices in HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care for West and Central Africa [Internet]. c2006 [cited 2023 Oct 1]. Available from: https://www.fhi360.org/sites/default/files/media/documents/Promising%20and%20Best%20Practices%20in%20HIV-AIDS%20Prevention%20and%20Care%20for%20West%20and%20Central%20Africa.pdf .
  64. World Health Organization. Global tuberculosis report 2022 [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2022 [cited 2023 Oct 1]. Available from: https://www.who.int/teams/global-tuberculosis-programme/tb-reports/global-tuberculosis-report-2022 .
  65. World Health Organization. Tuberculosis Key Facts [Internet]. 2022 [cited 2023 Oct 1]. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/tuberculosis .
  66. World Health Organization. Tuberculosis [Internet]. 2018. [cited 2023 Oct 19]. Available from: https://www.afro.who.int/health-topics/tuberculosis-tb .
  67. Nachega JB, Kapata N, Sam-Agudu NA, Decloedt EH, Katoto PDMC, Nagu T, et al. Minimizing the impact of the triple burden of COVID-19, tuberculosis and HIV on health services in sub-Saharan Africa. Int J Infect Dis. 2021 Dec; 113: Suppl 1:S16–S21. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2021.03.038.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Vanleeuw L, Zembe-Mkabile W, Atkins S. I'm suffering for food": Food insecurity and access to social protection for TB patients and their households in Cape Town, South Africa. PLoS One. 2022 Apr 26; 17:(4):e0266356. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0266356.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Duarte R, Lönnroth K, Carvalho C, Lima F, Carvalho ACC, Muñoz-Torrico M, Centis R. Tuberculosis, social determinants and co-morbidities (including HIV). Pulmonology. 2018 Mar-Apr; 24:(2):115–119. doi: 10.1016/j.rppnen.2017.11.003.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Chipeta MG, Kumaran EPA, Browne AJ, Hamadani BHK, Haines-Woodhouse G, Sartorius B, et al. Mapping local variation in household overcrowding across Africa from 2000 to 2018: a modelling study. Lancet Planet Health. 2022 Aug; 6:(8):e670–e681. doi: 10.1016/S2542-5196(22)00149-8.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Ojo T, Ruan C, Hameed T, Malburg C, Thunga S, Smith J, et al. HIV, Tuberculosis, and Food Insecurity in Africa-A Syndemics-Based Scoping Review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 Jan 19; 19:(3):1101. doi: 10.3390/ijerph19031101.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Carney T, Rooney JA, Niemand N, Myers B, Theron D, Wood R, et al. Transmission Of Tuberculosis Among illicit drug use Linkages (TOTAL): A cross-sectional observational study protocol using respondent driven sampling. PLoS One. 2022 Feb 15; 17:(2):e0262440. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0262440.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. World Health Organization. Africa’s fight against TB: the gains and the challenges [Internet]. Africa Renewal - United Nations. 2022 Apr [cited 2023 Oct 10]. Available from: https://www.un.org/africarenewal/magazine/africa%E2%80%99s-fight-against-tb-gains-and-challenges .
  74. Uwimana J, Zarowsky C, Hausler H, Jackson D. Engagement of non-government organisations and community care workers in collaborative TB/HIV activities including prevention of mother to child transmission in South Africa: opportunities and challenges. BMC Health Serv Res. 2012 Aug 2;12:233. doi: 10.1186/1472-6963-12-233.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Barter DM, Agboola SO, Murray MB, Bärnighausen T. Tuberculosis and poverty: the contribution of patient costs in sub-Saharan Africaa systematic review. BMC Public Health. 2012 Nov 14;:12:980. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-12-980.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Atkins S, Heimo L, Carter DJ, Ribas Closa M, Vanleeuw L, Chenciner L, et al. The socioeconomic impact of tuberculosis on children and adolescents: a scoping review and conceptual framework. BMC Public Health. 2022 Nov 23; 22:(1):2153. doi: 10.1186/s12889-022-14579-7.
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Franck C, Seddon JA, Hesseling AC, Schaaf HS, Skinner D, Reynolds L. Assessing the impact of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in children: an exploratory qualitative study. BMC Infect Dis. 2014 Aug 1;14:426. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-14-426.
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Stillson CH, Okatch H, Frasso R, Mazhani L, David T, Arscott-Mills T, et al. ’That’s when I struggle’… Exploring challenges faced by care givers of children with tuberculosis in Botswana. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2016 Oct; 20:(10):1314–1319. doi: 10.5588/ijtld.15.0989.
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Moscibrodzki P, Enane LA, Hoddinott G, Brooks MB, Byron V, Furin J, et al. The Impact of Tuberculosis on the Well-being of Adolescents and Young Adults. Pathogens. 2021 Dec 8; 10:(12):1591. doi: 10.3390/pathogens10121591.
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Meyerson KA, Hoddinott G, Garcia-Prats AJ, Tomlinson M. Caregiver-child separation during tuberculosis hospitalisation: a qualitative study in South Africa. S Afr J Psychol. 2021 Sep 1; 51:(3):409–421. doi: 10.1177/0081246320962729.
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Citro B, Soltan V, Malar J, Katlholo T, Smyth C, Sari AH, et al. Building the Evidence for a Rights-Based, People-Centered, Gender-Transformative Tuberculosis Response: An Analysis of the Stop TB Partnership Community, Rights, and Gender Tuberculosis Assessment. Health Hum Rights. 2021 Dec; 23:(2):253–267.
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Amah P. How grantees are helping to save lives in Rural Nigeria [Internet]. Stop TB Partnership. 2023 [cited 2023 Oct 11]. Available from: www.stoptb.org/global/awards/cfcs/ .
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Jefferies M, Rauff B, Rashid H, Lam T, Rafiq S. Update on global epidemiology of viral hepatitis and preventive strategies. World J Clin Cases. 2018 Nov 6; 6:(13):589–599. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v6.i13.589.
    [Google Scholar]
  84. World Health Organization - Africa (WHO-Africa). Hepatitis [Internet]. 2022 [cited 2023 Oct 1]. Available from: https://www.afro.who.int/health-topics/hepatitis .
  85. Global Burden of Diseases Study (GBD). Death Trends and Disability Adjusted Life Years for Viral Hepatitis. 2019. Available from: https://vizhub.healthdata.org/gbd-results/ .
  86. World Health Organization. 91 million Africans infected with Hepatitis B or C. WHO | Regional Office for Africa>. 2022 Jul. Available from: https://www.afro.who.int/news/91-million-africans-infected-hepatitis-b-or-c .
  87. Coste M, De Sèze M, Diallo A, Carrieri MP, Marcellin F, Boyer S, et al. Burden and impacts of chronic hepatitis B infection in rural Senegal: study protocol of a cross-sectional survey in the area of Niakhar (AmBASS ANRS 12356). BMJ Open. 2019 Jul 17; 9:(7):e030211. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-030211.
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Kolbila L, Adjei CA, Kyei JM, Agyemang-Prempeh C, Fosu PK. Perceived Supportive Care Needs of Adolescents With Chronic Hepatitis B in a Resource-limited Setting. J Patient Exp. 2022 Jun 7;9:23743735221106596. doi: 10.1177/23743735221106596. .
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Makoni M. New scorecard reveals Africa’s hepatitis cost. Lancet. 2019. Jun 29: 393. Available from: www.thelancet.com .
    [Google Scholar]
  90. World Health Organization. Viral Hepatitis Scorecard 2019 African Region. [cited 2024 Jan 25]. Available from: https://www.afro.who.int/sites/default/files/2019-07/Viral_Hepatitis_Scorecard_2019_v3_Print_Single_SC_A4%20%282%29.pdf .
  91. World Health Organization. Viral Hepatitis Scorecard 2021 African Region. [cited 2024 Jan 25]. Available from: https://www.afro.who.int/sites/default/files/2022-07/Viral_Hepatatis_Scorecard_%20WHD%202022_0.pdf .
  92. Lesi O. The burden of viral hepatitis in the WHO Region of Africa. Open Access Government. 2019. Available from: viral-hepatitis/67856/ .
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Chabrol F, Noah Noah D, Tchoumi EP, Vidal L, Kuaban C, Carrieri MP, et al. Screening, diagnosis and care cascade for viral hepatitis B and C in Yaoundé, Cameroon: a qualitative study of patients and health providers coping with uncertainty and unbearable costs. BMJ Open. 2019 Mar 20; 9:(3):e025415. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-025415.
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Fukuoka T, Bessho K, Hosono S, Abukawa D, Mizuochi T, Ito K, et al. The impact of treatment on the psychological burden of mothers of children with chronic hepatitis C virus infection: a multicenter, questionnaire survey. Sci Rep. 2022 Dec 21; 12:(1):22116. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-25519-1.
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Freeland C, Mendola L, Cheng V, Cohen C, Wallace J. The unvirtuous cycle of discrimination affecting people with hepatitis B: a multi-country qualitative assessment of key-informant perspectives. Int J Equity Health. 2022 May 31; 21:(1):77. doi: 10.1186/s12939-022-01677-6.
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Mude WW, Fisher CM, Richmond J, Gautier RL, Wallace J. Social impacts of living with chronic hepatitis B in South Sudanese community in Australia. Ethn Health. 2022 Apr; 27:(3):529–541. doi: 10.1080/13557858.2020.1782849.
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Abaah D, Ohene LA, Adjei CA. Physical and social well-being of family caregivers of persons with hepatitis B associated chronic liver disease in Ghana: a qualitative study. BMC Prim Care. 2023 Mar 24; 24:(1):82. doi: 10.1186/s12875-023-02041-5.
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Janke EA, McGraw S, Garcia-Tsao G, Fraenkel L. Psychosocial issues in hepatitis C: a qualitative analysis. Psychosomatics. 2008 Nov-Dec; 49:(6):494–501. doi: 10.1176/appi.psy.49.6.494.
    [Google Scholar]
  99. World Health Organization. Social Determinants. Global Tuberculosis Programme. 2023. Available from: https://www.who.int/teams/global-tuberculosis-programme/populations-comorbidities/social-determinants .
  100. Mokomane Z. Role of families in social and economic empowerment of individuals. In: United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Promoting Empowerment of People in Achieving Poverty Eradication, Social Integration and Full Employment and Decent Work for All; September 2012; pp. 10-12.
  101. Ochola EA, Karanja DMS, Elliott SJ. Local tips, global impact: community-driven measures as avenues of promoting inclusion in the control of neglected tropical diseases: a case study in Kenya. Infect Dis Poverty. 2022 Aug 5; 11:(1):88. doi: 10.1186/s40249-022-01011-w.
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Schmid J, Morgenshtern M, Turton Y (Jessie). Contextualized Social Work Education: A Critical Understanding of the Local. J Soc Work Educ. 2022; 58:(4):719–732. doi: 10.1080/10437797.2021.1969300 .
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Anthonj C. Contextualizing linkages between water security and global health in Africa, Asia and Europe. Geography matters in research, policy and practice. Water Secur. 2021;13:100093. doi: 10.1080/10437797.2021.1969300 .
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Cerf ME. The Sustainable Development Goals: Contextualizing Africa’s Economic and Health Landscape. Glob Chall. 2018 Jun 21; 2:(8):1800014. doi: 10.1002/gch2.201800014.
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Daftary A, Padayatchi N. Social constraints to TB/HIV healthcare: accounts from coinfected patients in South Africa. AIDS Care. 2012; 24:(12):1480–6. doi: 10.1080/09540121.2012.672719.
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Friends of the Global Fight. Backing Civil Society to End the AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria Epidemics. Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria; 2019.
  107. Govender K, Cowden RG, Nyamaruze P, Armstrong RM, Hatane L. Beyond the Disease: Contextualized Implications of the COVID-19 Pandemic for Children and Young People Living in Eastern and Southern Africa. Front Public Health. 2020 Oct 19;8:504. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.00504.
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.5339/qjph.2023.9
Loading
  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): AfricaEndemic Communicable Diseases(ECDs) and Mortality and Morbidity Trends
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error