Volume 2022 Number 1
  • ISSN: 1999-7086
  • EISSN: 1999-7094


There is a paucity of robust, theory-based research investigating vaccination behavior.1 Using Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF), the study aimed to explore the key behavioral determinants influencing vaccine behavior among pharmacy professionals in Qatar. A cross-sectional online survey of pharmacy professionals was conducted in April 2021. Survey items included questions related to demographics, vaccination behavior, and behavioral ‘determinants’ influencing vaccination (Likert statements, TDF items). The draft questionnaire was reviewed for face and content validity with experts and piloted among 80 participants. The sample size was calculated (n = 353) using the Raosoft online calculator. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and Principal component analysis (PCA) of TDF items.2,3 The response rate was 37.40% (1,065/2,400). The majority expressed willingness to receive the COVID-19 vaccines. Participants who refused the influenza vaccine in the past were more likely to refuse the COVID-19 vaccines too (χ2(1) = 12.6, chi-square; p < 0.001). The mean (SD) overall percentage score of behavioral determinants influencing vaccine acceptance and advocacy were 31.2 ± 19.6 and 36.5 ± 28.2 (on a scale from -100 to 100). Vaccine acceptance was lower among those who refused any vaccines in the past (33.2 ± 18.9 vs 28.7 ± 20.1; p < 0.001) (Table 1). The main barriers to vaccine acceptance were safety, speed of development, and cultural influences. PCA identified ‘belief of consequence and emotions (fear and anxiety) as more negative determinant (-1.4 ± 42.1) potentially influencing vaccine acceptance behavior (Table 2). Although most participants considered it as their professional duty to advocate the use of vaccines, they were unsure if patients will accept their recommendations. Most participants expressed an interest to receive the COVID-19 vaccines and considered it as their professional duty to recommend the use of the vaccine. However, they were unsure if patients would accept their advice. Study findings will assist to develop behavior change interventions targeting individuals.


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  1. Wang W, Wu Q, Yang J, Dong K, Chen X, Bai X, et al. Global, regional, and national estimates of target population sizes for covid-19 vaccination: descriptive study. BMJ. 2020 Dec 15:;371m4704.
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  2. Atkins L, Francis J, Islam R, O'Connor D, Patey A, et al. A guide to using the Theoretical Domains Framework of behaviour change to investigate implementation problems. Implementation Science. 2017; 12:(1):1–8.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bro R, Smilde AK. Principal component analysis. Analytical methods. 2014; 6:(9):2812–31.
    [Google Scholar]

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